African Journal of
Pure and Applied Chemistry

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0840
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 357

Full Length Research Paper

Reversal of plasticity of acid leached kaolinitic clays from Mukurwe-ini

Dickson Andala
  • Dickson Andala
  • Department of Chemistry, Multimedia University of Kenya, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Wachira David Maina
  • Wachira David Maina
  • Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 January 2015
  •  Accepted: 24 March 2015
  •  Published: 30 April 2015


Andrade A, Dachamir H, Hazim A (2010). Measuring and modeling plasticity of clay. Mater. Res. 13(3):395-399.
Atkins P, Overton T, Rourke J, Weller M, Armstrong F (2006). Shriver & Atkins Inorganic Chemistry (Fourth Edition). New York: Oxford University Press pp. 168, 338, 628.
Bain A (1971). A plasticity Chart as an aid to the identification and assessment of industrial Clays. Clay and Clay minerals. 9(1):1-17.
Bowanko G, Jozefaciuk G (2012). Effect of acid and alkali treatments on surface areas and adsorption energies f selected minerals. clay and clay minerals. 50(6):771-783.
British Standard 1377: Part 2 1990. "Soil testing Mechanics," Laboratory Testing Manual 2000, Central Materials Laboratory, Ministry of Works, The United Republic of Tanzania.
Cao W, Liao L, Zhohui S, Wang X, Zhiguo X (2011). Adsorption of low concentration Ammonium onto Vermiculite from Hebei Province, China. Clay and Clay Minerals 59(4):446-458.
Dumbleton MJ, West G (1966). Some factors affecting the relation between the clay minerals in soils and their plasticity. Clay and clay Minerals 6:179-193.
Gulgun Y (2011). The effect of temperature on characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite. Sci. Res. Essays 6(9):1928-1939.
Harris W, White N (2007). Methods of soil analysis. Part 5. Mineralogical methods. SSSA Book Series No.5, Soil Society of America, Madison, USA. 4:36.
Haruna K, Onoja P, Chiroma M (2007). Characterization of Mayo-Belwa clays. Leonardo Electronic J. Practices Technol. 6(11):123-130.
Igbokwe K, Olebunne L, Nwakandu S (2011). Effect of Activation Parameters on conversion In Clay-Catalyzed Esterification of Acetic acid. Int. J. Basic appl. Sci. (IJBAS-IJENS) 11(5):1-8.
Julia NR, Lawrence NW (2011). Hydration behaviour of MX80.bentonite in a confined volume system: Implications for backfill design. Clay and Clay Minerals 59(4):640-653.
Karoki K (2009). Analysis and treatment of clays from Mwea to assess their value as a source of Aluminium and Ceramic products. (Master of Science Un-Published), Kenyatta, Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 3-31.
Keller D (1979). Clays. In Kirk, E. and Othmer, F. (Ed), Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (Third Edition). New York. John Wiley and Sons 6:190-206.
Mohamed AA, Hesham GI (2010). Variation of Feed Chemical Composition and Its Effect on Clinker Formation–Simulation Process. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2010 Vol II WCECS 2010, October 20-22, 2010, San Francisco, USA.
Motlagh KM, Youzbashi AA, Rigi AZ (2011). Effect of acid activation on structural and bleaching properties of a Bentonite. Iranian J. Mat. Sci. Eng. 9(4):50–56.
Neville AM (2012). Properties of Concrete (Fifth Edition), London, Prentice Hall Chapter 1 Web ISBN-10:0-273-78633-78634.
Onukwuli D, Ajemba R (2012). Evaluation of the Effects of acid activation on adsorptive properties of Clay from Ukpor in bleaching Palm oil. Int. J. Multidisciplinary Sci. 3(5):46-52.
Panda AK, Mishra BG, Mishra DK, Singh RK (2010). Effect of sulphuric acid treatment on the physic-chemical characteristics of kaolin clay. Colloid and surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects 363(2010):98-104.
Salvage PF (2007). Evaluation of possible swelling potential of soils. Proceedings of the 26th Southern African Transport Conference (SATC, 2007). Pretoria, South Africa pages 277 – 282 ISBN 1-920-01702-x. 9-12 July 2007 online at Accessed 20/6/2013.
Schoonheydt R, Johnson T (2006). Surface and Interface Chemistry of Clay Minerals. In Lagaly, G., Theng, K., Bergaya, F., (Ed.) Handbook of Clay Science. Development in Clay Science (Vol.1). Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd. Chapter 3.
Stucki W, Golden C, Charles R (1984a). Effects of reduction and re-oxidation of structural iron on the surface charge dissolution of Smectites. Clay and Clay minerals. 32(5):350-356.
Stucki W, Golden C, Charles R, Philip L (1984b). Effects of oxidation state of octahedral iron on Clay swelling. Clay and Clay Minerals 32(5):357-362.
Usman MA, Ekwueme KI, Alaje TO, Mohammed AO (2012). Research article, Characterization, acid activation, and bleaching performance of Ibeshe clay, Lagos, Nigeria. International Scholarly Research Network volume 2012, Article ID 658508,5 pages. Doi:10.5402/2012/658508. Accepted 11 January, 2012.
Vaughan J, Patrick D (1995). The Mineralogy Society Series. Mineral Surfaces. London: Chapman Hall. pp. 303-323.
Yahiaoui A, Mohammed B, Hachemaoui A (2003). An Acid Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of Polyepichlorhydrin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 4:548-561.
Zhou C, Keeling J (2013). Fundamental and applied research on clay minerals: From climate and environment to nanotechnology. Appl. clay sci. 74:3-9.