Identification of proactive preeclamptic factors in pregnant women, as one of the three maternal and neonatal mortality factors, is of special importance. Omega-3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that may reduce blood pressure and brain and heart attacks affecting the production of prostaglandins and reducing unwanted fat, vasodilatation and platelet adhesion. This study was designed and implemented to clinically evaluate the effect of omega-3 supplements in preventing preeclampsia among high risk women of Qazvin city. In a double-blinded clinical trial, 100 high risk preeclamptic women were selected by target-based sampling from among pregnant women referred to health centers in Qazvin city, and voluntarily enrolled into the study. Then, samples were randomly divided into two treatment groups with omega-3 supplementation and placebo, respectively. The population was monitored until termination of pregnancy and childbirth, and post-delivery information was collected and statistically analyzed. Incidence and severity of preeclampsia among the mothers receiving omega-3 supplement 1 g daily during pregnancy was significantly less than that in the control group (p = 0.015). The outcome of pregnancy, including birth time zone and minute 5 Apgar score of neonates in omega-3 group were significantly greater than in the control group. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in omega-3 group was significantly less than that in the control group. Using Omega-3 supplement is effective in reducing incidence of preeclampsia and its severity. It is also effective on improving pregnancy outcome, including birth weight and neonatal minute 5 Apgar score. Therefore, development of nutritional education programs for pregnant women seems to be necessary.
Key words: High-risk pregnancy, preeclampsia, omega-3.
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