In this study we screened various crude fractions of Cannabis sativa indigenous to Pakistan against cisplatin-induced vomiting in pigeon and to find the involvement of gastrointestinal (GIT) motility and gastric emptying in said complication. Cannabis sativa hexane (CS-HexFr 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg), n-butanol (CS-ButFr 5 and 10 mg/kg) and methanol fractions (CS-MetFr 10 and 15 mg/kg) were examined against cisplatin-induced vomiting and their possible effects on GIT motility/gastric emptying in pigeon by charcoal propulsion method. Standard prokinetic drugs metoclopramide (MCP, 30 mg/kg) and carbachol (0.1 mg/kg) were screened in combination with CS-HexFr to estimate the involvement of gastric emptying and GIT motility in cisplatin-induced vomiting. CS-HexFr at the dose of 10 mg/kg once and twice daily attenuated cisplatin-induced vomiting up to 55.45 and 68.86% (P < 0.01), respectively. CS-MetFr and CS-ButFr failed to reduce cisplatin-induced vomiting (P > 0.05). CS-HexFr 10 mg/kg caused up to 26.62% suppression in GIT motility as compared to vehicle treatment group. MCP (30 mg/kg) and carbachol (0.1 mg/kg) completely antagonized the suppression caused by CS-HexFr 10 mg and in combination enhanced the antiemetic profile at 12 to 24 h, while no enhanced activity was observed at 0 to 12 h. The findings suggest that the decrease in GIT motility/gastric emptying is playing a role at least in part in the vomiting induced by cisplatin commencing just after the peak vomiting response of acute phase in pigeon.
Key words: Cisplatin, vomiting, gastrointestinal motility, Cannabis sativa, carbachol.
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