This research work was undertaken in order to evaluate the toxicity effects of the leaf extract of Olax subscorpioidea on albino Wistar rats using the biochemical, haematological and histopathological indices. Five groups (A to E) of eight rats per group were used for this study. Animals in group A was administered with distilled water while the rats in groups B, C, D, and E were administered with 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract of O. subsorpioidea via oral intubation for 28 days. Animals were subsequently anaesthetized in diethyl ether respectively and blood samples were collected for some biochemical and haematological assays, while the liver and kidney organs were isolated and processed for histopathological studies. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the levels of total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in the groups treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, while significant elevation (p<0.05) was observed in alkaline phosphatase, and albumin levels. Furthermore, haematological studies showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in white blood cell count and haemoglobin level in the treated groups. Moreover, the group treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibited a reduced (p<0.05) percentage mean cell haemoglobin and lymphocyte, while the percentage neutrophil was significantly increased (p<0.05). Histopathological studies conducted revealed that there was no significant damage on the liver and kidney tissues. The results suggest that extract of the leaf of O. subscorpioidea could alter the haematopoietic elements as well as some biochemical parameters and may not cause any adverse effect on the liver and kidney tissues.
Key words: Olax subscorpioidea, biochemical parameters, haematological parameters, histopathological studies.
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