African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2199

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the aqueous extract of Cassia arereh Del. stem-bark

S. I. Ngulde1*, S. Sanni1, U. K. Sandabe1 and D. Sani2
1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Borno State, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2Zonal Veterinary Clinic, Aliyu Jodi Road, P. O. Box 3232, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 04 August 2010
  •  Published: 31 August 2010


The phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of the aqueous extract of Cassia arereh stem-bark were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening of active chemical constituents and disc diffusion method was performed to determine the antimicrobial properties. The results revealed the presence of tannins, phlobatannins, carbohydrate, saponin, flvonoids, terpenes and steroids while anthraquinones, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were not detected. The extracts (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/ml) inhibited the growth ofStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Enterobacter species. However, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corynebacterium pyogenes and Candida albicans were resistant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 50mg/ml for S. aureus and B. subtilis, and 100 mg/ml for P. aeurogenosa. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of C. arereh stem-bark contained active principles having antibacterial properties and thus support the folkloric use of the plant.


Key words: Phytochemical, aqueous extract, antimicrobial, Cassia arereh.