Trypanosomiasis is an important protozoan disease affecting domestic livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Control of trypanosomiasis is by administration of antitrypanosomal drugs. Quinapyramine was widely used between 1950s and 1970s in Africa as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent in cattle. Trypanosome resistance to the drug developed rapidly and often associated with problems of toxicity. Administration of quinapyramine sulphate (QS) at a lower than recommended dose in combination with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) was explore in the treatment of trypanosomiasis. Parasite clearance, clinical, haematological, and serum biochemistry were used to ascertain efficacy of combination. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in rectal temperature between treated groups, however, temperature normalization was observed in QS and FIA group than in QS, FIA alone and infected untreated groups. There was 100%, 70% 0% and 0% survival rate in the group administered QS and FIA, QS, FIA alone and infected untreated groups respectively. Mean body weight gain was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in QS and FIA than other groups. Packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration for infected groups were lower, but increased after treatment. However, the QS and FIA group showed better recovery, an indication of anaemia amelioration. White blood cell counts were not significantly different (p < 0.05) in treated groups, leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis was observed in QS and FIA group, than in other groups. Serum biochemical parameters showed decrease in aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase in QS and FIA when compared to QS, FIA only and infected untreated groups. In conclusion, QS and FIA treated group revealed no relapse, normalization of rectal temperature, amelioration of anaemia resulting in improved haematological parameters than the other groups. Therefore, FIA in combination with QS at a lower dose may enhance efficacy of QS in trypanosomiasis.
Keywords: Trypanosomiasis, Quinapyramine sulphate, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant