The aim of this study was to investigate the oral acute toxicity effects of dichloromethane fraction of ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum on rats using conventional methods. The rats were divided in nine groups. The control group received normal saline. The others groups received the order of doses of 800, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000 mg/kg body weight. However, the rats showed signs of immobility with the dichloromethane fraction at doses of 5000 mg/kg body weight and mortality at doses of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The LD50 was 3000 mg/kg body weight and the quotient LD5/LD95 was 0.17. This value shows that the toxic dose and the therapeutic dose were not distant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing sugars in the stem bark of P. reticulatum. These results suggest that dichloromethane fraction of the ethanol extract of stem bark of P. reticulatum could be used with some degree of safety especially by oral route.
Key words: Acute, toxicity, stem, bark, Piliostigma reticulatum, rats.
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