African Journal of
Political Science and International Relations

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pol. Sci. Int. Relat.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0832
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPSIR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 383

Full Length Research Paper

Elaborated and restricted codes of pluralism - Entangled manifestations in natural resource-dependent African countries

Francisco Kofi Nyaxo Olympio
  • Francisco Kofi Nyaxo Olympio
  • Cultural Anthropology, FB IV ? University of Trier, D-54286, Germany
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 18 March 2013
  •  Accepted: 19 August 2014
  •  Published: 31 October 2014


Adama G (2006). Chine - Afrique: Le Dragon Et L'autruche. Etudes Africaines.


Africa Focus Bulletin (2005). Chad's Oil Tranparency Loopholes Feb. 20, 2005.



AfrolNews (2007). Outcry at Angolan Corruption Fighter's Arrest.



Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (2007). Former Tanzanian Leader Calls for 'Home-Grown Democracy'. 1 July. Maputo.



Ake C (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.



Alario MV, Nath LE (2006). Natural Resources: Predictors for War? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec. pp.1-16.



Alden C (2007). China in Africa: Partner, Competitor Or Hegemon? International African Institute, Royal African Society. Zed Books, pp.108-138.



Alex de Waal (2002). What's New in the 'New Partnership for Africa's Development? International Affairs 78(3):463-475.



Almond G, Verba S (1963). The Civic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations, Princeton.



Anderson L (1987). 'The State in the Middle East and North Africa', Comparative Politics, p. 20.



Angola Press Agency (Luanda) (2007). Cabinet Approves Prompt Subsidy for Political Parties. 25 January, 2007.



Angola Press Agency (2006). CNE Chairman Denies Delay in Election Preparation. 20 December.



Angola Press Agency (2008). UNITA Lodges Appeal with Constitutional Court. September 15.



Angola Press Agency (Luanda) (2006). Angola: Legislative Elections in 2008, Presidential Poll in Following Year. December 21.



Angola Press Agency (Luanda) (2007). Angola: 2008 State Budget Provides for Administrative Decentralisation. 13 December Angola Press Agency (Luanda). (2007). Huíla - US. US$ 19 Million Invested in Construction of Institutes. January 8.



Arditi C, Hankey CP (1991). Études socio-economique et financiè de L'Office national des cereals - Tchad. 2 vol. Ndjamena, Chad: Commission des Communauté Européennes.



Auty RM (1993). Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis. London, Routledge.



Azevedo MJ, Nnadozie EU (1998). Chad: A Nation in Search of its Future. Westview Press. A Division of Harper Collins Publishers Inc.



Barnes JF (1992). Gabon. Beyond the Colonial Legacy, Westview Press, Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford.



Basedau M, Erdmann G, Mehler A (2007). Votes, Money and Violence. Political Parties and Elections in Sub-Saharan Africa. Uppsala/Scottsville, Nordiska Afrika Institutet/KwaZulu-Natal Press.



Basedau M (2005). Politische Krise und Erdoil im Tschad ein Modell am Ende? GIGA Focus - German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Institute für Afrika-Kunde, Nummer 3, März 2006.



Basedau M, Wolfram L (2006). A Paradox of Plenty? Rent Distribution and Political Stability in Oil States. N° 21 April. GIGA Research Program: Dynamics of Violence and Security Cooperation. Working Paper Series.



Basedau M (2005). Context Matters. Rethinking the Resource Curse in Sub-Saharan Africa, GIGAWorking Paper Series, p.1.



Basedau M, Mehler A (2005). Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa, Hamburg, GIGA-Hamburg, pp 5-9.



Basedau M (2005). Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa beyond the Resource Curse: Towards a Future Agenda. In: Basedau & Mehler (Eds.). Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa. Institut für Afrika Kunde, Hamburg. pp.325-326.



BBC REPORT (2008). End to World Bank's Chad Oil Deal. 10 September.



Beblawi H (1987). The rentier state in the Arab World. In: Hazem Beblawi and Giacomo Luciani, (eds.). The Rentier State. New York: Croom Helm.



Beetham D (1994). "Key principles and indices for democratic audit". In David Beetham (ed) Defining and Measuring Democracy, Sage Publications, London, Thousand Oaks & New Delhi.



Berner E (1995). Power Resources and Dominance: A Critique and Reformulation of Strategic Groups Analysis. South East Asia Programme. Working Paper No. 218. Bielefeld: 4.



Bertelsmann's Transformation Index (2012). Chad Country Report. Bertelsmann's Stiftung, Gütersloh.



Boahen AA (1987). African Perspectives on Colonialism. Sankofa, Accra; James Currey London; the John Hopkins University Press.



Bratton Michael (2007). Formal versus Informal Institutions in Africa. J. Democracy. 18(3):96 - 110.



Buijentenhuijs Robert (1978). Le Fronlinat et les revolts populaires du Tchad: 1965-1976. The Hague, p. 466.


Burchard S (2006). "Colonial Legacies and Development Performance in Africa" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Centre, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22.



Carmody P (2011). The New Scramble for Africa, Polity.



Collier P, Hoeffler A (2001). Greed and Grievance in Civil War, Washington/DC: World Bank.



Collier P, Ian B (eds) (2003). Natural Resources and Conflict: What we can do. In Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions, The World Bank.



Collins R (1988). Network Theories. Theoretical Sociology, pp.411-448.



Coppedge M, Gerring J, Altman D, Bernhard M, Fish S, Hicken A, Kroenig M, Lindberg SI, McMann K, Paxton P (2011). Perspectives on Politics 9(2). pp: 247-267.



Committee to Protect Journalists (NY) Gabon (2007). Government bans Tabloid for Three Months.



Council on Foreign Relations (2007). Chad's oil Troubles. By Carin, Zissis (Staff writer). April 27.



Council on Foreign Relations (2007). Towards an Angolan Strategy: Prioritizing U.S. - Angolan Relations.



Dahl RA (1990). "Democracy and its critic". Political Theory, 18(3):512-518.



De Saussure F (1986). Course in General Linguistics. R. Harris, Trans. Chicago Open Court.



Decalo S (1997). Historical Dictionary of Chad, Third Edition. African Historical Series, No. 13. The Scarecrow Press Inc. Lanham, Md., and London.



Diamond LJ (1994). Towards democratic consolidation. J. Democracy 5(3):4-17.



Die Zeit online- (2006). Der Westen ist scheinheilig". Christoph, Kober's Interview with Peter, Niggli, Alliance Sud, der entwicklungspolitischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft.



Durlauf SN, Fafchamps M (2005). Social Capital. In Handbook of Economic Growth, S Durlauf, P Aghion (eds). Amsterdam, North Holland.



Easton D (1975). A Re-assessment of the concept of Political Support. British J. Polit. Sci. 5:435-457.



Evers HD (1982). Sequential Patterns of Strategic Groups Formation and Political Change in Southeast Asia. Working Paper No. 14, Bielefeld. Augsburg.



Evers HD, Schiel T (1988). Strategische Gruppen. Vergleichende Studien zu Stadt, Bürokratie und Klassenbildung in den Dritten Welt, Berlin, Reimer.



Fandrych S (2005). From Liberation Struggle to Proxy War, and from Warlordism to Victor's Peace: The Role of Resources in Angolan Politics. In Basedau and Mehler (eds) Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa, GIGA-Hamburg.



Foucault M (1990). The History of Sexuality; Vol. 1, an Introduction (R. Hurley Trans.) New York: Vintage Books. Cited in Mark Bevir (ed.): The Encyclopaedia of Governance. SAGE Publications. 2007 p. 233



Fuchs D, Oscar WG, Völkl K (2002). Vertrauen in Politische Institutionen und Politische Unterstützung. Österreicher Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaften. Jg. 31H. 4. pp. 427 - 450.



GABONNEWS (Libreville) Gabon (2007). Bongo Ondimba lauréat du grand prix Manhae de la paix pour 2007. 9 August.



Galtung J (1969). Violence, Peace and Peace Research, J. Peace Res. 6(3):167–191.



Gardiner DE (1994). Historical Dictionary of Gabon, 2nd ed. The Scarerow Press.



Gardinier DE (1993). France and Gabon since 1993: The reshaping of a neo-colonial relationship. J. Contemporary Afr. Stud. 18(2):225-242.



Gary I, Terry LK (2003). Bottom of the Barrel: Africa's Oil Boom and the Poor. Catholic Relief Services, pp.18-73.



Gary K, Reisch N (2005). Chad's oil: Miracle or Mirage? Following the Money in Africa's Newest Petro-State, Catholic Relief Services, pp.35-64.



Géraud M (2000). Insécurité alimentaire et culture cotonière au Sud du Tchad. Cahiers d'Études Africaines 159: 525-549.



Ghazvinian J (2007). Untapped: Scramble for Africa's Oil. Harvest Books.



Gimaraes FA (2001). The origins of the Angolan Civil War. Foreign Intervention and Domestic Political conflict. Macmillan Press Ltd, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London.



Global Policy Forum (2000). Chad Oil Project Nears Decision. Bretton Woods Project, June 13, 2000. NY.



GLOBAL VOICES (2009). Angola - Presidential Elections Postponed? By Clara Onofre, Saturday 21st February.



Global Witness Report (2002). The Devastating story of Oil and Banking in Angola's Privatised War. All the Presidents Men. Media Library. Published 01/03.



Gould JM, Winters M (2012). Petroleum blues: The Political economy of resources and conflict in Chad. In: High value natural resources and peacebuilding, (eds) Lujala P and Rustad SA. London: Earthscan.



Granovetter M (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem Embeddedness', Am. J. Sociol. 91:481-510.



Haber S, Menaldo V (2007). Do Natural Resources Fuel Authoritarianism? Stanford Center for International Development, Working Paper p.351.



Hagströmer B, Eriksson H (2005). Chad: Towards Democratisation or Petro-dictatorship? Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, pp.70-71.



Hartlyn J, Morley SA (1986) "Latin American Political Economy: Financial Crisis and Political Change". Westview Press.



Heberer T (2003). Entrepreneurs in China and Vietnam as Strategic Players in Social and Political Change. Journal of Communist Studies and Transitional Politics. 19: 64-79.



Hodges T (2001). Angola: from Afro-Stalinism to petrol-diamond capitalism. The international African Institute.



Hodges T (2004). The Role of Resource Management in Building Sustainable Peace. The Angolan Peace Process, Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, Issue 15, Conciliation Resources, London: 48.



Hood SJ (2004). Political development and democratic theory. M.E. Sharpe. Armonk, NY, London, England.



Human Rights Watch Report (2008). Angola: Doubts over Free and Fair Elections. New York, August 13.



Human Rights Watch (2004). Some Transparency, No Accountability - The Use of Oil Revenue in Angola and its Impact on Human Rights. January.



Human Rights Watch Report (2006). Still Not Fully Protected: Rights to Freedom of Expression and Information under Angola's New Press Law. 18:11.



Huntington SP (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.



Huntington SP (1984). Will More Countries Become Democratic? (Summer, 1984), Polit. Sci. Q. 99(2):193-218



Huntington SP (1991). The 'third wave': Democratisation in the Late twentieth Century. University of Oklahoma Press.



Hyden G, Court J, Mease K (2004). Making Sense of Governance. Empirical Evidence from Sixteen Countries. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder London.



Jackson MO (2005). A survey of Network Formation Models: Stability and Efficiency. In Demage G, Wooders MH (eds). Group Formation in Economic: Networks, Clubs and Coalitions. Cambridge University Press.



James MW (2011). Historical Dictionary of Angola. Scarecrow Press.



Jense N, Wantchekon L (2004). Resource Wealth and Political Regimes in Africa. Comparative Political Studies, 37(7):816-841.



Lachenmann G (1992).Social movements and civil society in West Africa.German Development Institute. Berlin .



Larsen H (1997). Foreign Policy and Discourse Analysis. Routledge.



Le Billon P (2006). Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict, Adelphi Paper 373, IISS & Routledge.



Le Billon P (2001). Angola's Political Economy of War. African Affairs 100(398):55-80.



Lemarchand R (1972). "Political Clientelism and Ethnicity in Tropical Africa: Competing Solidarities in Nation-Building". American Political Science Review. 64(1):68-90.



Lindberg SI (2006). Democracy and Elections in Africa. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Linz JJ, Alfred S (1996). Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern Europe, South America and Post-communist Europe. Baltimore/ London. John Hopkins University Press.


Lipset SM (1959). Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 53, No. 1Mar.. pp. 69-105.



Lowenkron BF (2007). U.S. Department of State Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Testimony before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relation Subcommittee on African Affairs by the then Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy Barry, F. Lowenkron. Washington, DC. July 17.



Lukonde L (2001). Angola: Zwischen regionaler Hegemonie und nationalem Selbstmord. Tectum Verlag, Marburg.



Mahdavy H (1970). 'The patterns and problems of economic development in rentier states: The case of Iran'. In: Cook MA (ed.): Studies in Economic History of the Middle East. London: Oxford University Press.



Mattes RB (2002). 'South Africa: Democracy without the People?' J. Democracy – 13(1):22-36.



Massey S, May R (2009). Oil and War in Chad. In: Southall Roger J and Henning Melber (eds). New Scramble for Africa? Imperialism, Investment and Development. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.



Meijer G (ed) (2004). From Military Peace to Social Justice: The Angolan Peace Process, Accord: International Review of Peace Initiatives, Issue 15, Conciliation Resources, London: pp.6-9.



Messiant C (2004). In the Shadows of 'Just Wars'. Violence, Politics and Humanitarian Action. Hurst & Company, London. In Association with Médecins Sans Frontière.



Miles WFS (1995). Tragic Tradeoffs: democracy and security in Chad. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. (Cambridge), 33(1):53-65.



Minter W (1994). Apartheid's Contras. An Inquiry into the roots of War in Angola and Mozambique, London.



Molt P (1998). "Widersprüchliche Transitionsprozesse in Afrika im Spiegel der Deutschen Afrikanistik". Politische Vierteljahresschrift (PVS) 39, Jg. Heft 3, Sept. pp. 633-646.



Morgan EK (1997). Democratisation in Africa - The Theory and Dynamics of Political Transition. Praeger Publishers, Westport CT.



Munslow B (1999). Angola: The Politics of Unsustainable Development. Third World Q. 20(3):551-68.



Neelson JP (1989). Determinismus, Teleologie, Mystifizierung? Zum Empirismus des Konzepts der strategischen Gruppen. Eine Duplik. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 41:55-562.



Nkwachukwu O (2009). Civil Society, Democracy and Good Governance in Africa. CEU Polit. Sci. J. 4(1):74-102.



Nolutshungu SC (1996). Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad. University of Virginia Press.



Norris P, Mattes R (2003). Does ethnicity determine support for the governing party? Afrobarometer Paper No. 26. (eds): Michael B, Gyimah-Boadi E, Mattes R. Managing Editor: Logan C.



Offe K (2003). 'Political Liberalism, Group rights and the Politics of Fear and Trust'. In: Herausforderung der Demokratie. Zur Integration und Leistungsfähigkeit Politischer Institutionen. Frankfurt/New York. Campus Verlag. p. 321 - 334.



Olympio FNK (2011). Third Scramble for Africa: Power Petrodollars and Challenge of Good Governance. Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrucken, Germany.



Omgba, LD (2009). On the Duration of Political Power in Africa: The Role of Oil Rents. March 2009. Comparative Polit. Stud. 42(3):416-436.



Osaghae E (2004). Political Transitions and Ethnic Conflict in Africa. J. Third World Stud. Spring p. 167.



Pakenham T (2001). The Scramble for Africa, 1876-1912. Phoenix Press, London.



Pantz K (2006). The Strategic Formation of Social Networks: Experimental Evidence. Shaker Verlag Aachen.



Pinkney R (2003). Democracy in the Third World. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder London.



Posner DN (2005). Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions. Cambridge University Press.



Powel WW, Smith-Doer L (1994). Networks and Economic Life. In The Handbook of Economic Sociology. N J Smelser, R Swedberg (eds). Princeton University Press.



Prendergast J (1999). Angola's Deadly War: Dealing with Swami's Hell on Earth. United States Institute of Peace, Special Report, 12. October 1999, Washington D.C.



Prempeh HK (2013). Constitutional autochthony and the invention and survival of "absolute presidentialism" in postcolonial Africa. In: Günter Frankenberg (Ed.) Order from Transfer. Comparative Constitutional Design and Legal Culture. Studies in Comparative Law and Legal Culture Series.



Przeworski A (1991). Democracy and the Market. Cambridge University Press.



Republic of Chad: Ministry of Economic Promotion and Development Steering Committee for the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers Preparation Status Report November (2001). Proclaimed at N'djamena, January 11, 1999. LAW NUMBER 016/PR/2000. AN AMENDMENDT TO LAW 001/PR/99 OF JANUARY 11, 1999, REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF OIL REVENUES.



Reyna S (2007). Waiting: The Socery of Modernity, Transnational Corporations Oil and Terrorism in Chad. J. Empir. Soc. Anthropol. 57(1):11-39.



Reyna S (2002). A Cold War story: The Barbarization of Chad (1966-1991). In R Brian Ferguson (Ed.), The state, Identity and Violence. London, Routledge.



Ricardo Sde O (2007). Business Success, Angola-Style: Post-Colonial Politics and the Rise and Rise of Sonangol. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 45, 4:595-619.



Ross ML (2001). Does Oil Hinder Democracy? World Politics 53(3):325-361.



Rothchild J (1981). Ethno-politics: A Conceptual Framework, New York: Columbia University Press.



Sachs JD, Warner AM (1995). Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth, NBER Working Paper 5398.



Sala-i-Martin X, Subramanian A (2003). Addressing the Natural-resource Curse: An Illustration from Nigeria. NBER Working Paper No. 9804 June, 2003.



Shambayiti H (1994). The rentier state, interests groups and the paradox of autonomy: State and bossiness in Turkey and Iran. Comparative Politics. 26 April.



Schubert G, Tetzlaff R, Vennewald W (1996). Democratization and Political Change: Theory and Application of the Concept of Strategic Groups and Groups with Conflict Capability Lit Münster.



Schubert G, Tetzlaff R, Werner V (1994). Das Konzept der Strategischen und Konfliktfähigen Gruppen (SKOG) eine Methode zur Analyse des gesellschaftlichen Wandels und der politischen Demokratisierung in Entwicklungs-und Schwellenländern. Lit.



Schubert G, Tetzlaff R, Werner V (1998) (Hrsg.). Demokratisierung und politischer Wandel. Lit Verlag.



Shapiro I (2003). The state of democratic theory. Princeton University Press.



Shaw T (1986). Ethnicity as the Resilient Paradigm for Africa: From the 1960's to the 1980's. Development and Change 17:587-605.



Skibble S and Vines A (2001). Angola: New Hopes for Civil Society? Review of African Political Economy No.90.-537-547. ROAPE Publications Ltd.



Smith MJ, Richards D (2003). Governance Policy in the UK. Oxford. Oxford University Press.



Smith WC (1989). Authoritarianism and the Crisis of the Argentine Political Economy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.



Southall RJ, Henning M (eds) (2009). New Scramble for Africa? Imperialism, Investment and Development. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, p. 19.



SouthScan.Net: London (2008). ANGOLA: New Political Profile Emerges as UNITA is Driven from its Heartland. 19, September.



Springer (1991). Netherlands. Military expenditures and bureaucratic competition for rents. Public Choice, August, 1991. 71(1,2):19-31.



Strizek H (1996). Ruanda und Burundi von der Unabhängigkeit zum Staatszerfall, Weltforum Verlag GmbH, Köln.



Tarabrin EA (1974). The New Scramble for Africa. Progress Publishers, Moscow.



Taylor PJ (1986). An exploration into world-systems of political parties. Political Quarterly 5. pp. 5-20.



Teorell J (1999). A Deliberative Defense of Intra-party Democracy. Party Politics, 5(3):363-382.



The Chad Publish What You Pay/Publish What You Earn Coalition, October 14, 2004.



The Royal Institute of International Affairs (2005). Angola: Drivers of Change. Position Paper 2: Politics. Chatham House, London. April.



The World Bank Group (2002). The Inspection Panel Investigation Report: Chad-Cameroon Petroleum and Pipeline Project (Loan no. 4558-CD); Petroleum Sector Management Capacity Building Project (Credit No. 3373-CD); and Management of the Petroleum Economy (credit No. 3316-CD).



Thomson A (2003). An Introduction to African Politics. Routledge, London/New York.



Thomson V, Adloff R (1981). Conflict in Chad. C. Hurst and Company, London.



Tilly C (2000). 'Processes and Mechanisms of Democratization', Sociological Theory, 18(1):1-16.



Walter JR (1992). Dictionary of Politics. Brunswick Publishing Company.



Wilson JQ (1962). The Amateur Democrat. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.



Woolcock M, Lant P, Isham J (2001). 'The Social Foundations of Poor Economic Growth in Resource-Rich Countries'. In: Richard M. Auty (ed). Resource Abundance and Economic Development, Oxford, U.K: Oxford University Press.



Wicker H (1997). Theorizing ethnicity and Nationalism. In Hans-Rudolf, Wicker (Ed.). Rethinking ethnicity and nationalism. Berg, Oxford, New York.



World Bank (2000). Project Appraisal Document for Petroleum Sector Management Capacity--Building Project. April 13.



Yates AD (2005). Neo-Patrimonialism and the Rentier State in Gabon. In Basedau and Mehler (eds), Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa, GIGA-Hamburg.



Yates AD (2006). The scramble for African oil. In: Scripta Politica et Economica. Fall 2006. Tanghe Printing 2006. Electronic resource: