Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites secreted by many fungal species and found in many feeds and foodstuffs of especially in plants during their pre-and post-harvest, transportation, processing and storage and are detected in cereal crops. They are capable of causing disease and death in both humans and livestock and thereby induce great economic crisis. This review aims to examine the occurrence, prevention and control strategies of mycotoxins in Ethiopia; they are beneficial to the public and research institutes. Favorable environmental conditions such as temperature and prompting humidity facilitate fungal growth and mycotoxin development. Members of the fungal genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium cause frequent and problematic contamination of foods and feeds. Mycotoxin level of sample can be analyzed by sampling, preparation, extraction followed by a cleanup and detection performed by many instrumental and non-instrumental techniques; the molecular analysis is the best and promising approach. In Ethiopia, ochratoxins, fumonisins and aflatoxins frequently occur retarding crop production and livestock productivity; these in turn affect human health and income. To keep this effect dimmed, mycotoxin control and prevention mechanisms have a key role; prevention strategy weighs the overall effect. Moreover, biocontrol activities shall be strongly encouraged and focus has to be given to the aspect of mycotoxin.
Key words: Mycotoxin, aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin.
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