Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2008


Development in technical and vocational education and training: Synopsis and implications of education policies for right skills in Kenya

Beatrice Amondi Osumbah
  • Beatrice Amondi Osumbah
  • Department of Applied Sciences Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, Kenya.
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Peter Wekesa
  • Peter Wekesa
  • Department of Planning, Research, Outreach and Policy Kenya National Qualifications Authority, Kenya.
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  •  Received: 30 March 2023
  •  Accepted: 25 May 2023
  •  Published: 31 August 2023


This article presents implications of education and training policies on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) from the pre-colonial Kenya to date based on systematic review of education policies and related literature. In the pre-colonial period the non-formal and informal vocational training was demand driven, relevant and flexible. Throughout the colonial period, the Kenyan natives developed negative attitude towards formal TVET because it was introduced and managed to suit the aspirations of missionaries and colonialists and so were there commendations of the various education commissions. At independence, and to appeal to the populace, the administrative and policy direction in the Country reinforced this negativity. On the other hand, there were indications that the government and policy makers saw TVET as a key solution to industrialization and the perennial youth unemployment menace. Through out the sixties, seventies, eighties and nineties the government’s enthusiasm for TVET resulted in inertia, gaining momentum in the turn of the millennium and peaking with the promulgation of the Kenya Vision 2030 and the Kenya 2010 Constitution. However, well-meaning policies are yet to translate in production of adequate and competent middle level professionals to drive innovative economy and industrialization. As a way forward, the government needs to take the lead and coordinate reforms in this multifaceted and policy crowded field with many players, and create a robust TVET ecosystem to accelerate production of right skills for jobs in the Country.


Key words: Education polices, Kenya education system, technical and vocational education and training, competency-based education and training, right skills.