Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1777

Full Length Research Paper

Turkish Background Families Live In Germany and Education: In Term of Families, Students, Teachers

Menekşe Eskici
  • Menekşe Eskici
  • Educational Science Department, Faculty of Art and Science, Kırklareli University, Kırklareli, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 05 February 2019
  •  Accepted: 26 February 2019
  •  Published: 23 March 2019

 ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to determine the problems, supports and suggestions for families of Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education. It is also intended to determine opinions of Turkish background students living in Germany and Turkish background teachers working in Germany about Turkish background families’ parents’ role. Phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used in this research. This research was carried out on 23 parents, 12 students and 6 teachers living in Germany with Turkish background to reveal the participants’ thinking about the research subject interviewed with participants. The data were obtained using semi-structured interview forms were prepared by researcher. A content analysis technique was used for the resolve of the data. In the light of the results language problems, cultural differences and conflicts, assimilations, prejudices of teachers towards Turkish students are mainly problems in education. Participants specified some suggestions such as, school parents’ cooperation should be developed, mother tongue teaching should be considered, and inclusion should be used instead of assimilation. According to results, it can be said that new generation are more conscious and liable about their children’s education than old generation of Turkish background families living in Germany.

 

Key words: Turkish background families living in Germany, migration, education.


 INTRODUCTION

A person becomes a part of a family once he/she is born. In the family the individual was born into, individual personality develops, individual cultural values are shaped and behaviors of the individual toward events are developed. The family plays a key role to care for and educate children. Parents are teachers who leave their children's first and lasting traces. From this point of view, parents' effect and guidance on their children is important. To enhance the effect of school education given at any time to an individual at the highest level, it could only be possible through conscious family orientation. At this point, the prominence of cooperation between the family and the school is evident.
 
The family, as the smallest and most basic element of society, has a great importance since it is the primary environment in which the individual meets his/her physical and emotional needs and earns cultural values. When the definitions related to the concept of family are examined (Agdemir, 1991; Nirun, 1994), the sharing and interaction between the individuals constituting the family can be observed. The family environment is the environment in which the individuals interacting with each other influence the younger members of the family psychologically. This interaction enables the individual to develop self-confidence, personality, social skills, to learn to love, and to achieve collective harmony. Unuvar and Senemoglu (2010) deemed the family as a shelter, where both cultural and ethical values are provided to children through children's environment, and where kindness and trust necessary for personality formation for growing-children are provided.
 
The fact that family influence has an important place in personality formation shows the role of parents in the formation of behaviours and habits that will be evident in later ages (Aslanargun, 2007; Ceka and Murati, 2016). As indicated by Bulut (1993), healthy individuals could only become possible where the families they grew up in have proper functioning. In parallel with Bulut’s (1993) assertions, Günindi and Giren (2011) supports the idea that parent-child relationship is important for child adaptation to surroundings. An individual who is experiencing social and emotional problems in the childhood may be able to continue these problems in later ages.
 
Individual education is not just a process that takes place in a school or just in the family. In this process, the family plays the most effective role outside the school in the education of the individual. It is an inevitable situation to work in cooperation with these two institutions (school, family), with common aims in terms of education of the individual (Argon and Kiyici, 2012). Kayisili (2008) emphasizes that parents are not only the first teachers of students but also the teachers' partners.  In addition to these, Beydogan (2006) states that although the education offered at schools are deemed as the main reason for students’ school success; it is a fact that the responsibility for the education of the individuals is distributed over a wider frame (School-Family-Society). Bower and Griffin (2011) indicates that the family contribution for individual education must be established on a voluntarily basis. The positive effects of family and school collaboration onto academic achievement are revealed by related studies (Akın 2009; Çelenk, 2003; İpek, 2011; Jeynes, 2007; Mautone et al., 2015; Yingqi, 2015). The family contribution has positive effect on not only students’ achievement but also on their attitudes towards school (Cripss and Zyromski, 2009; McNeal, 2014). One of the consequences of an active family collaborative effort with the school is that the student is an active student at school (Marshall and Jackman, 2015; Nitecki, 2015). It is also an important fact that the support of  the  family  is  inevitable  in  the  process  of  preparing the school for the readers (Smith et al., 2011). In such a case, it would not be wrong to say that the participation of the child in the school education process would make the educational process more productive.
 
On account of the fact that education is a system that requires constant inter action, and the importance of family participation comes into the forefront in the education process. It is a systematic approach to the promotion of families, to the training and education of children, to the enhancement of the experiences of children with the increase and continuity of communication between their homes and educational institutions and the enrichment of their programs with the participation and contributions of the parents (Cömert and Gulec, 2004). It is wrong to think that participating in the education process of the family is only possible when parents are physically present in the school (Quiocho and Daoud, 2006). The family involvement activities that teachers mostly include in their programs are: working with children at home, parents' attending educational activities, and making visits to school (Unuvar, 2010). Family participation is defined by Cagdas and Secer (2004) as teaching the skills of specific subject to parents, providing social and emotional support, providing information between parents and professionals, participating in a group, developing suitable parent-child relationship and helping to reach the social resources. In supporting this concept asserted by Çağdaş and Secer (2004), Cömert and Gulec (2004) emphasizes that family involvement is a process of sharing information and establishing relationships, and that the invisible program is a fundamental institution and that also form a bridge of coherence between children’s worlds.
 
Although positive effects of family participation in the individual's education process are significant, it is possible to say that the participation of the family in the education process has many problems, which reduces the effectiveness of family participation. The students stated that family and school (Baysal, Tanrıkulu and Cimsir, 2019) mostly cause the problems in their lives. Parents limit the educational activities of their children with safety concerns (Ceylan, 2018). In the restriction of the inclusion of low socio-cultural families in the educational process, inadequacies of school administrators and teachers in cooperating with parents, lack of healthy communication between educator-parent-student, thinking that unnecessary attendance of parents to the education process by teachers, negative attitudes of parents to participation in the education process, not having enough time to participate, the inability of the families to comply with the cultural difference between educators, the number of students, the education level of their families, the inadequacy of family participation of the educators are the main problems that must be handled (Beydogan, 2006; Erdogan and Demirkasimoglu, 2010; Meyer and Mann, 2006; Waanders et al., 2007).
 
While the importance on the individual's education is at an indisputable scale, the family takes its place in educational problems as a painful picture in which the educational process of the children is negatively affected by differences in family structures, parental unconsciousness and family problems. In such a case, the role of family living abroad on their children's education is also a subject of debate (Lee and Bowen, 2006). Cultural and linguistic differences are among the main problems immigrant families experience regarding effective participation in the educational process (Garza and Crawford, 2005; Zhang and Slaughter-Defoe, 2009).
 
However, the educational success of children of minorities living overseas has increased significantly with their participation in the education process (Banerjee et al., 2011). Wang et al. (2014) have found that the participation rate of ethnicity in the educational process of families migrated is low. Chiefly, language differences can be a problem between families and school personnel (Chu and Garcia, 2014; Zhang and Bennett, 2003). Migrant parents have difficulty speaking the language of the country they live in accurately and fluently (Tao and Taft, 2017). Souto-Manning and Swick (2006) indicates that teachers emphasize the role of schoolchildren in the education participation of minority families.
 
Turks’ aim to migrate to the European countries was to save money and return for the Turks in the most economical way. However, over the years, the existence of Turkish workers has turned into an important fact that radically affects social, political, cultural and economic life (Ural, 2012). It comes at the beginning of the countries where the Turks live the most in Europe. According to official records in Germany, there are approximately, according to Federal Foreign Registration Center (AZR), three million Turkish citizens living in such territories. This figure is also an inevitable reality of the reflection of the size of the social structure. Since the children of Turkish descent living in Germany have begun to receive education in school as children of all the families living abroad, they are staying between two different cultures at home and at school. In this situation, it is necessary to make school-family communication much more cautious so that children are not adversely affected.
 
International labor migration is a reality that brings economic, social, cultural and political problems. These problems can be handled in many dimensions. One of these is the education of children in the immigrant family. Education is a process involving family participation, parent-school collaboration. In this case, the need to play an effective role in the education of a student living in a foreign country, his or her parents, and the difficulties arising from this necessity, constitute a major problem for families living abroad. The current barriers need to be lifted in order to ensure the participation of parents in the education of the school. For this reason, it is envisaged that  the  necessary  conditions   for   family   participation should be established and studies for this field should be made in order to ensure the continuation of these conditions.
 
Objectives
 
The aim of this research is to determine
1. What are the problems of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education?
2. What are the effect of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education?
3. What are the advantages of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education?
4. What are the suggestions of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education? 


 METHODOLOGY

Research Design
 
This descriptive model research is a qualitatively designed study. Phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used in this research. As stated by Yıldırım and Simsek (2011) phenomenology provides a good searching condition for the facts, which are not completely known and not completely unknown to people. Phenomenology tries to express individual differences of people by stressing events that can be perfected and commented by people who live in the same culture differently (Morton, 1986).  
 
Workgroup/ Sample
 
This research was carried out with 23 Turkish background parents live in Germany, 12 Turkish background university students at the Germany Westfälische Hochschule University of Applied Sciences and 6 Turkish background teachers working in Ruhr Area, Germany, in 2014.  Parents’ age varies from32 to 72. University students’ age change varies from 21 to 29. Teachers’ age varies from 35 to 64. Among the parents were16 females, 7 males; 7 male students, 5 females; 5 female teachers, 1 male. Snowball sampling method is one of the purposive sample selection methods used. Since it is necessary to identify the individuals (sample) which may be a rich source of information on the problem of the research, snowball-sampling method was preferred. In accordance with the snowball sampling method, families with Turkish background living in Ratingen, one of the cities in Germany, were interviewed. Some questions such as “would you give me any suggestion about interview with anyone who is related to the topic?”, “who has information about the topic?” were asked of families with Turkish background living in Germany. As interviews go on, people were determined to collect data. Since they became prominent, growing like a snowball. After a certain period of interviews, individuals that are to be met became obvious and their numbers reduced. In order to get rich data from sample, different age groups and different education levels have been considered.
 
Data collection
 
The data were collected using interview technique. Interviews have been recorded with the permission of participants. Interviews ranged from participant to participant, but lasted approximately 1 h and 15 min. Interviews were conducted face to face with the participants.
 
Data collection instruments
 
Three semi-structured interview forms (1 semi-structured interview form for parents, 1 semi-structured interview form for students, 1 semi-structured interview form for teachers) were prepared in order to collect data. First related literature was scanned to create a pool of questions for the semi-structured interview forms. The pool of questions were checked by experts (3 faculty members working at educational department and 1 sociology department). The questions on the semi-structured interview forms were determined according to the expert opinion. Qualification of questions in the interview forms are designed to enable comparing views of teachers, parents, and students on the study topic. Before applying the semi-structured interview forms, prepared semi-structured interview forms applied to apart from sample group 1 families with Turkish background living in Germany, 1 student with Turkish background living in Germany and 1 teacher with Turkish background living in Germany as a pilot study. After the pilot study, prepared semi-structured interview forms in this research have been accepted as applicable.
 
Analysing data
 
In order to understand terms and relations under these terms, content analysis method has been used. While data are being analysed, the researcher categorizes these by analysing similarities and differences between statements of study examples, using phenomenology method. Every category explains how an individual precepts and comments a content (Akerlind, 2012; Barnard et al., 1999).
 
This research has four main questions (Problems in education, Parents’ effect for education, Advantages of to be educated in a foreign language, Suggestions for a better education). Answers given from three different participant groups (Turkish background families live in Germany, Turkish background students live in Germany, Turkish background teachers live in Germany) were compared. In data analysis, categories have been created according to similarities and differences. Participants’ thoughts and answers about topic, which are importantly considered, have been presented directly. Presenting quotes that were taken from participants directly and reaching a result from these quotes are important for validity of the study (Yıldırım and Simsek, 2011).
 
The limitations of the research
 
This study is limited to the participants in the interview and the interview form.


 FINDINGS

Analysed data are shown in the tables.
 
Problems of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education
 
Problems of families with Turkish background living in Germany regarding their children education; problems of students with Turkish background living in Germany regarding their education; and problems of teachers of Turkish background living in Germany in education process have been categorized as below.
 
As seen in Table 1, problems of families, students and teachers with Turkish background living in Germany as relating to education, language problems, cultural differences and conflicts, assimilations, prejudices of teachers towards Turkish students, equivalence of diplomas, unconsciousness of families and financial problems. Families, students and teachers with Turkish background who live in Germany have stated that they had language problems mostly during the education process. This problem is widespread especially among old age groups. It can be concluded that new generation does not have language problems much. Cultural differences and conflicts are accepted as significant problems among Turkish background families and students as well as teachers who live in Germany. In addition, equivalence of diplomas is another problem among students. Related with the subject, reviews that were taken directly from participants are as below:
 
P2: “We are trying to keep our values but assimilations do happen. I am afraid of growing up with German culture and having conflict between two cultures.”
P4: “The more families try to integrate the more they are assimilated. This situation increases the probability of identity conflict for children. We did not teach Turkish to our child purposely but now we regret that. She is 25 years old now and she is trying to learn Turkish now. She accepts the fact that not knowing her mother language is a great incompleteness.”
 P7: “I am afraid of her forgetting Turkish. She cannot speak properly. Here, families with Turkish origin speak Turkish-German mixed language. They speak and we cannot prevent this. Children who grew up here were affected more due to this situation. Even if their speech is understandable in Turkish, we have much more difficulty in writing.”
P18: “We can feel that they separate us and they see us different and this situation can be seen in grades. Teachers are not fair when they grade us.”
P23: “We have a serious language problem. Children usually speak German after they have started school and I could not communicate with them because I cannot speak German. As a result, we have fallen apart.”
T3: “Since students have language problem they cannot express themselves properly. This situation causes lack of self-confidence and even stammering. German teachers    have    prejudice   to    students    who     have behavioural disorder due to their families’ lack of interest.”
T4: “Busy parents come home very tired and they do not pay attention to their children’s education process”
 T6: “Families who have low income think that spending money for education is unnecessary. Now they realized it was a mistake”
T2: “There is no support for parents who cannot speak German, which is a language based problem. Strict families do not try to adapt due to the fear of assimilation.”
S1: “we do not feel ourselves, German or Turkish. We are foreigners to both cultures. When we want to come back we have so many problems. One of them is equivalence of diplomas. Turkey does not accept our diplomas.”
S3: “German teachers’ point of view towards Turkish students is negative. Generally, they are forwarded to schools that are designed for “special education students.”
 
Effects of families with Turkish background living in Germany regarding their children’s education
 
Thoughts from the perspective of Turkish background families, parents and students living in Germany, related to assessment of parents’ effects on their education have been categorized as below:
When Table 2 was examined, it can be seen that Turkish parents who live in Germany support their children’s education. Students also stress the support of their families. However, teachers who have stated family support is 33%, which is low. Parents who have stated that they have contact with school management is 69.56%, for teachers this rate is 66.66% and for students this rate is 58.33%. Teachers have stated that parents are not interested in their children’s’ education by the rate of 83.33%; parents who accept their low interest is about 8.56%, which is very low. There is also time problem among parents. Teachers have stated this by the rate of 33.33%, students have stated this by the rate of 41.56%, parents have stated this by the rate of 39.13%; teachers have stated that parents who do not participate in educational process is 83.33% and for students’ point of view this rate is 50%. It can be understood that those who think that parents are unsatisfactory for their support is 34.78%.  Related with the subject, Quotes that were taken directly from participants are as below:
 
P22: “I was working so I could not support properly but I always did my best for them to have education.”
P9: “I primarily paid attention for their mother language because I think if he/she cannot speak his/her mother language properly, he/she would not be able to learn a foreign language well. I always want them to have a job. School helps them so I did not want to intervene“
 
P3: “My education level is low and my German is not enough to speak so I could not help him/her. However, when I realize a teacher is not fair by misleading my child I go to school and talk to teachers and manager. “
T3: “New generation is more conscious about education and they are aware of the importance of education. This situation makes things easier for teachers. In the past, there were more problems. New generation is interested in their children’s’ education needs as their education level is getting better.”
T2: “I think Parents’ support is the most important factor in their children’s’ academic achievement. Some parents are not well educated; they cannot speak a foreign language. Education is in the second place for them so they cannot support them so this situation reduces their academic achievement.
T6: “Parents tried to contact with school management and participated meeting because they had to. Participating rate was very low at first but later this rate increased and students became more successful. Earning money is the first priority for parents; education is coming next, which has a negative effect. This point of view reduces their participation”
S7: “Our parents always want us to continue our education but their education level is low and they cannot speak a foreign language so they could just support us mentally.”
S5: “My parents’ aim was to make some money and to come back to Turkey and they did not have an exact decision for me. They thought that it was just teachers’ responsibility to support a student.”
S12: “My parents and my teachers cannot communicate; I help them to understand each other. My family could not support me well they did not help my homework.”
 
 
Advantages of families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education
 
Comments of families, teachers and students with Turkish background living in Germany, about advantages of to be educated in a foreign country have been categorized as below: As seen in Table 3, participants of this research remarked on advantages of being educated in a foreign country as language learning, cultural wealth, social activities, practical training, job orientation, sense of duty, educational environments. Direct quotes taken from participants’ opinion about the topic like the following:
 
P1: “Students are bilingual. Immigrant students know one more languages compared to German students. Here, consultancy service is great and they help students to choose the right job.”
P12: “They provide good conditions for education in Germany. Teachers always supply what they need. Students get everything they need.”
T2: “It is an advantage for students to learn a foreign language. Also, they learn with social activities.”
T4: “There are students from different countries in schools. They also learn different cultures, which help them to learn how to respect them.”
S7: “We are taking responsibilities when we learn there are so many activities.”
S12: “We are learning a new language here and this is a different culture. Our point of view is expanding.”
S4: “They are counselling when we decide to choose a job for the future, which reduces our better future anxiety.”
 
Suggestions families with Turkish background living in Germany about their children’s education
 
Suggestions for a better education for families, teachers and students living in Germany have been categorized as follow:
 
As seen in Table 4, participants specified some suggestions such as parents should be educated about variety of cultures, school parents’ cooperation should be developed, mother tongue teaching should care more, and inclusion should be prefered to assimilation. Direct quotes taken from participants’ opinion on the topic:
 
P7: “If parents are supported financially there will be more opportunities especially in higher education.”
P23: “Mother tongue education is important. Every school must have a native teacher gotten by Turkish government”
T6: “It is inevitable to solve this problem in a short time. Parents’ adaptation affects children’s’ education. If parents become more conscious the process will continue easily. In order to maintain a good communication, parents should speak a foreign language well.”
T5: “In my opinion, parents training is a solution, which are currently insufficient. Parents should realize the importance of education. Also, mother tongue should be respected and should have prestige.”
S3: “Parents could be trained to support their children’s’ education. Knowing a language is also important. Of course Turkish is important too, but in order to be successful knowing German is a must.”
 

 


 DISCUSSION

The problems encountered by the children of families with Turkish background living in Germany, the effects on their education, advantages of having trained abroad (Germany), and the proposals of the participants for improved education process abroad (Germany) are revealed based on the data collected for the purpose of this study.
 
Education related problems of families, students and teachers of Turkish background living in Germany are listed as language problems, cultural differences and conflicts, assimilations, prejudices of teachers towards Turkish students, equivalence of diplomas, unconsciousness of families, and financial problems. In a study conducted by Mendez (2010), it was emphasized that the problems encountered by the minority families in education process are language communication, poverty, school climate, teacher apprehension, work related obligations, and lack of understanding of the parents’ role within the academic environment. From the findings of the study revealed in the study conducted by Mendez (2010), it is seen that it has similarities with the findings of this study. In particular, language problems stand out as the main problem for participation of the families living abroad to the education system. Tezcan (2010) that the success rates of the students of Turkish background living in Germany are low because of their failure to learn German fluently emphasizes it. It has been asserted by Yılmaz (2014), as a supporting document of the findings of this research, that one of the biggest problems that families in Germany with Turkish-background face are problems relating to their native language learning. In a study conducted by Sen (2016), it was established that the students of Turkish background living in Belgium had faults in writing their native language due to the effect of the second language. In addition, it is asserted in a study conducted by Kocak (2012) that the citizens of Turkish background living in Germany have some difficulties in speaking Turkish, their mother tongue. The findings of the studies conducted by Sen (2016) and Kocak (2012) are seen as being in parallel with the statements made by the parents of the students of Turkish background, “our children are having difficulties in Turkish written language even if they can speak Turkish smoothly”. In a study conducted by Sarıkaya (2014), as support to the finding that cultural difference and language problems are part of the problems encountered during education process, confirms that students with Turkish background in Belgium fail to speak the language they are educated in and their mother tongue fluently, they encounter problems with the culture they live in and are stuck between two cultures. Luchtenberg (2002) states that bilingual education constitutes a major problem in the education. In addition, the study conducted by Lueck (2010) support these findings. According to the study conducted by Lueck (2010), the families living in Texas become more positive after they are educated about English as a second language.
 
According to the assertions made by Ilgar and Topac (2014), Turkish-background families’ major concerns are the possible alienation to the Turkish culture and/or get confused between these  different  languages  and/or  the possible danger of regarding their culture as unnecessary. The study finding is parallel with the finding of this study, that families of Turkish background living in Germany worry that their children will experience cultural confusion by growing up with German culture and be assimilated in such culture. In the research conducted by Ural (2012), it has been revealed that the discrimination perception of Turkish-background families living in the Netherlands are medium to low levels, and it may be stated that it has direct relation to the finding with the opinion of parents who believe students are biased against the students of Turkish background (34.78%).
 
The parents of Turkish background living in Germany, stated they care about the education of their children in general. However, Turkish background teachers live in Germany asserted that there are problems in particular with the parents because of their socio-economic inadequacy. Financial difficulties, attitudes and concerns of teachers against minority students, and families’ low level of education are seen as other prominent problems. The finding revealed in the study conducted by Mendez and Westerberg (2012) that realization of cultural adoption of the families living in a foreign country as minority members increases the participation of the families in education process. The finding of Liu (2016) that participation of the minorities in education process is related to the cultural features, overlap with the cultural differences and conflicts shown among the problems encountered in education process revealed in this study. Yagmurlu and Sanson (2009) indicates that even if the cultural integration level of the mothers living in Australia change, their love and respect remained at high level; this is parallel to the findings achieved here, in terms of love and respect level of the participants.
 
In this study, prejudices of teachers towards Turkish students are considered as a problem. Teachers must be conscious of multiculturalism in education. According to the study conducted by Phillips (2017), teachers should be educated about cultural differences. Pre and post test results showed that teachers’ multicultural attitude became higher after education. The finding of the study conducted by Ndebele (2015), that parents of students with higher socioeconomic level have higher homework participation level; this is parallel with the finding of this study that financial insufficiency is to be considered as a problem in education process. In addition to the foregoing, the study conducted by Nam and Park (2014) indicates that the education levels of mother and father affect the participation level of school activities. The study conducted by Sarikaya (2014) indicates that one of the main reason for students’ failure in terms of educational process are negative attitudes shown by parents and families staying away from school because of culture and language differences. The researches conducted by Nam and Park (2014) as well as Sarikaya (2014) are in parallel with the assertions mentioned  here,  which  indicate  that the key problem encountered during the parent participation level to children education is low social-economic level and second problem is that education is deemed as a secondary issue. As a supportive argument for what has been asserted here, Eight Five Year Development Program (2001) had stated that, children could not continue their higher education because of their families’ unconsciousness and they tend to continue in vocational institutions. 
 
The participants of this research indicated that the most important advantage of receiving education abroad is to learn different languages. In a review of literature, researches emphasizing the importance of knowing different languages are observed (Büyükikiz and Hasirci, 2013; Çelebi, 2006; Donato and McCormick, 1994; Dörnyei, 1998; Genç, 2012; Iscan, 2011; Korkmaz, 2016; Long, 1985). In addition, the participants stated that receiving education abroad would have the advantage of receiving education together with students and teachers from different countries, and these circumstances would offer cultural diversities and the achievements of such multi-cultural environment would be reflected on students. In a review of the applicable literature sources, it is seen that there are plenty of researches underlying that having education in a multi-cultural environment has its advantages (Castro, 2010; Demir and Basarir, 2013; Eskici, 2016; Garmon, 2004; McAllister and Irvine, 2000; Ríos and Montecinos, 1999; Sleeter, 2001; Yavuz and Anil, 2010).
 
Furthermore, the participants emphasize existence of more social activities during the education process, directive attitude of the school for profession selection, developing sense of obligation and other educational advantages as the major advantages. It has been emphasized by such participants of the research that education should be provided to the parents of Turkish background living in Germany for better operation of the education process. Such fact is also emphasized in 8th Five Year Development Plan (2001). Improving the collaboration between the parents and schools is another topic suggested by the participants. Babaoglan (2010) states that establishing collaboration between Turkish Government, European governments, and the parents shall increase the productivity of students. The emphasis of the study conducted by Ural (2012) is on the importance of creating social integration without leaving aside the immigrant families and applying discriminative policies; this overlaps with the finding of this thesis.  
 
Another aspects emphasized by the participants is attaching importance on education of the mother tongue.  In the review of literature, the studies supporting this claim were seen (Belet 2009; Janssen et al. 2004; Sarikaya 2014; Sen 2016). Another proposal of the participants was to offer financial support for immigrant families. A study conducted by Persembe (2010) also emphasizes   that   the   immigrant   families   are   to   be provided with financial support.


 CONCLUSION

Parents’ involvement is important in the education process. Properties of families also have its place in the education system, as a point to pay attention to. Families that had to migrate because of financial problems, experiencing compliance issues with a different country have more problems as regards their children’s education process. Families with Turkish background live mostly in Germany. In this manner, Turkish background families live in Germany as a minority have social differences. The effect of this social difference on education of Turkish background students living in Germany is inevitable.
 
Within the scope of the findings of this research, it can be said that Turkish background families, students, and teachers living in Germany have some problems about their children’s education. Language problems, cultural differences and conflicts, assimilations, prejudices of teachers towards Turkish students, equivalence of diplomas, unconsciousness of families and financial problems were determined as problems of Turkish background families, students and teachers living in Germany about education. In addition, Turkish background families, students and teachers live in Germany emphasized that new generation has less problems about education than old generation. According to Turkish background families living in Germany, they always support their children with higher education. However, according to Turkish background students and teachers living in Germany, families do not give adequate support, especially on language, educational perspective and socio-economic level.
 
In addition, participants remarked that some advantages of education abroad is to learn different languages, cultural wealth, social activities, practical training, job orientation, sense of duty, educational environments etc. Intercalary Turkish background families, students and teachers living in Germany believe there education will be better on the condition that parents support education, school-parents collaborate and there is improved mother tongue education.


 RECOMMENDATIONS

Considering the findings of this research, some recommendations are given as follows:
 
Recommendations for educational environment
 
Turkish background families, teachers and students living in Germany should be trained on the culture, language  of  the country they live in and the importance of education.
Mother tongue education should be given more attention.
Turkish background students living in Germany should be pre-trained on German language.
Turkish background families and students living in Germany should be supported economically towards education.
Schools and Turkish background parents living in Germany should cooperate.
Some activities for better adaptation to German culture should be organized.
Educational programmes should be developed in the light of multiculturalism.
Teachers should be conscious of breaking down prejudices against immigrants.
 
Recommendation for educational researchers
 
Some projects that will include Turkish background parents living in German should be developed.
Views of migrant parents about better education in foreign country should be investigated.
Researches can be done to understand the social structure in Germany.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author has not declared any conflict of interests.



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