Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1942

Full Length Research Paper

The extent of use of video clip for teaching and learning in Nigerian universities: A case study of faculty of education, University of Calabar

Edem N. B.
  • Edem N. B.
  • Department of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ekon E. E.
  • Ekon E. E.
  • Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 25 February 2020
  •  Accepted: 05 May 2020
  •  Published: 31 July 2021

 ABSTRACT

This study reports a survey conducted to explore the extent of use of Video Clip (VC) by academic staff for teaching and learning at the Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Five Research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study was made up of all lecturers in the Faculty. The data were obtained using a structured questionnaire which in random was administered to respondent in their offices. One hundred copies of the questionnaire were randomly distributed to respondents in their various offices in the University studied. Eighty copies of the questionnaires were retrieved and used for data analysis (with 80.0% return rate). Method of data analysis used was percentage cumulative frequency. The findings of the study indicate that, although the  vast majority (87.5%) of academic staff in the Faculty of Education were aware of VC tool for teaching and learning, their utilization was rather low (47.5%) and the frequency of usage is equally low, as most (47.5%) respondents used VC tool only occasionally based on the courses  taught.  Major challenges that hinder the utilization of VC by academic staff and Faculty of Education include power outage, unavailability of computers, overcrowded lecture rooms, capacity development, and inadequate provision for in-service training. The paper also proffered some strategies required to eliminate the challenges such as useful awareness campaign and proper in-service training to be organized by the management of the Faculty for effective capacity building amongst others.

 

Key words: Video clip, educational development, academic staff, university of Calabar, Nigerian universities.


 INTRODUCTION

Video is a potential window that can change and expose the minds and hearts of many learners on modern educational development. This is because education has remained an instrument of change and national development (Danmole, 2011). In Nigeria, education is an instrument for “excellence” for effective national development (Federal Government of Nigeria [FGN], 2004). Video is known to be recorded moving images that could appeal to the sense of sight. Arranging them in clips or short and programmed structures could help in the teaching and learning processes. Therefore, video enhances comprehension and retention. Real life activities involving illustrations, demonstration and specimens in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics   are brought to the students in classrooms in an exciting package. 
 
Video Clip (VC) is cost effective relative to the traditional options of fieldtrip which has a recurring cost annually. According to Ekwueme et al. (2016), learning with Video Tape instruction (VTI) especially video clips could assist learners to gain proficiency in organizing their thought while observing the pictorial presentation on the watched clip. The researchers posit that, modern educational technology tools such as video tape, video clips and power points slides, are self-learning devices built with the help of different technologies to make teaching and learning processes more interesting and effective. Based on its importance, a video clip may be integrated in the teaching and learning processes in Nigerian universities. 
 
Similarly, Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) opined that, the use of  VCI increases the probability of students to learn more, retain and achieve better academic performance. There are therefore some teaching models that are effective teaching avenues to facilitate students learning and understanding of scientific concepts.  Ekon and Edem (2015) identified positive effects on Computer Based Instructional models on students’ achievement and interest in biology in secondary schools in Cross River State. There is therefore, the need for lecturers to effectively utilize these resource devices to enhance effective teaching and learning in Nigerian Universities. This study reports on a survey carried out in the faculty of Education, University of Calabar, to explore the faculty Awareness and Utilization of VC for effective teaching and learning.


 LITERATURE REVIEW

A lot of studies have been conducted to investigate the effective utilization of Video Clip Instruction (VCI) for teaching and learning in Nigerian (Ekwueme et al., 2016; Ekon and Edem, 2015; Wonu and Domaka, 2013; Ifte, 2011; Wonu et al., 2010; Yusuf and Ajere, 2009). Ekwueme et al. (2016) carried out a study on the effects of educational video clip on students’ academic performance in Basic Science and Mathematics and discovered that the group taught with video clips outperformed their counterparts who were taught using conventional method. Ekon and Edem (2015) posit that computer based constructivist instruction had a significant impact on teaching secondary school students. A study carried out by Yusuf and Ajere (2009) on the effects of videotape and slide tape instructions on student’s achievement in social studies revealed that students performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using a normal classroom instruction.
 
Contemporary studies in the developed countries, in the area of education technology have focused on the use of instructional resources for teaching and learning. Wonu and Domaka (2013) studied the use of Microsoft Math Tool (MSMT) in teaching quadratic equation in a mathematics classroom and found out that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) was very effective compared to the conventional method while Wonu and Didi (2010) investigated the effectiveness of CAI in teaching Statistic Measure of Location (SML) at senior secondary on the use of modern information media (interactive video, computer assisted instruction (CAI), a Satellite, etc) while research efforts in Nigeria are still mainly on established medium. Tiba et al. (2016), while re-examining the factors that influence teachers’ adoption and utilization of technology for teaching, reported that lack of availability and lack of access are the major factors that hinder teachers from utilizing the technology effectively. The researchers concluded that school stakeholders should as a matter of urgency make available these tools, as well as trained teachers to be able to utilize them for teaching and learning. According to Osuji (2009), professionally qualified teachers are expected to have attained desirable attitudes, skills and knowledge to make them efficient and effective in their work. On students’ performance, Ifte (2011) discovered that watching video clips enhances their retentive memory and make them remember what was taught in class.
 
A lot has been done in the area of the use of video clip on students’ academic performance according to literature reviewed but no study centering on the use of video clip by academic staff thus this study intends to find out the extent of use of video clip for teaching and learning in Nigerian Universities.


 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Albert Bandura’s social learning theory provides the theoretical basis for this study. Bandura (1977) opined that parts of what a person learns are through observation and imitation and that learning takes place in a social situation. According to this theory, an individual modifies his/her behavior as a result of how others in the group are responding as the environment and the individual’s behaviors are determinant of one another (Bandura, 1978).
 
In this regard, learning can occur by observing or watching the events in the environment which may occur physically or derivative of the real objects. This theory has useful application in learning such as computerized instructional approaches where pictorial presentations of learning materials could be used for teaching. This means that learners could learn by watching the video clip presented by the lecturers, replicate, grasp and retain learnt concepts easily.
 
Purpose of the study
 
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of use of video clip by academic staff for teaching and learning in Nigerian Universities. The study explored the following specific purposes:
 
(i) To find out if academic staff at the faculty of Education is aware of video clip as an instructional medium for teaching and learning.
(ii) To determine the extent of utilization of VC by academic staff for teaching and learning processes.
(iii) To determine the frequency of utilization of VC as an instructional medium for teaching and learning.
(iv) To find out the opinion of academic staff on the benefits of utilizing VC for teaching.
(v) To determine different factors that impedes their utilization of VC for teaching and learning purposes.
 
Research questions
 
(i) Is academic the staff, in the Faculty of Education, aware of Video Clip as an instructional medium for teaching and learning?
(ii) To what extent does the academic staff utilize VC for teaching and learning?
(iii) What are the frequency of utilization of VC as an instructional medium for teaching and learning?
(iv) What are the opinions of the academic staff on the benefits of utilization of VC for teaching?
(v) What are the factors that could impede their utilization of VC for teaching and learning?


 METHODOLOGY

Quantitative approach was used for the study with survey as the research method. Structured questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. Academic staff drawn from four departments (Education Science, Education Art, Curriculum/Teaching, and Education Social Science) in the Faculty of Education University of Calabar was used for the study. One hundred (100) copies of the questionnaire were randomly distributed to respondents in their offices. However, 80 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and used for data analysis (with 80.0% response rate).


 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the study are presented and discussed under each of the stated research objectives:
 
The respondents were asked to indicate their demographic characteristics as presented in Tables 1 to 3.
 
Entries in Table 1 showed the percentage distribution of respondents by some selected demographic characteristics (rank, gender and department) of academic staff in Faculty of Education. The results are presented per department from assistant lecturer to professor. The female (60.0%) respondents outnumbered the males (40.0%). The result implies that female lecturers are more in the teaching profession and are more educationally developed in the Faculty in the utilization of instructional media for teaching and learning. Presently more male lecturers are catching up with the trend on educational development. A total of four departments were used for the study, while curriculum and teaching (27.5%) had the highest respondents. Respondents were asked to indicate their awareness of the potential use of Video Clip as an instructional material.
 
Results in Table 2 revealed that the majority of the respondents were aware (87.5%) that Video Clip is a resource material that aids in teaching and learning, only a few (12.5%) indicated their non-awareness of the resource material.
 
 
In this study, the respondents were asked to indicate their extent of utilization of VC for teaching and learning. Evidence from Table 3 indicated that majority of the respondents (65.0%) are not utilizing VC for teaching and learning at the Faculty of Education. The result showed that only a few respondents (35.0%) that is from Professor to Assistant Lecturer are utilizing VC to a small extent and this work conformed to the study of Tiba et al. (2016) who reported on the challenges to effective technology for teaching. The researchers indicated that lack of availability and lack of accessibility of technology by teachers at school are the major challenges that hinder effective utilization for teaching and learning. The findings of the study indicated that their frequency of utilization is rather very low as most lecturers are not utilizing VC due to unavailability of the resource material in the various departments studied.
 
Frequency of utilization of VC by respondents
 
The respondents were asked to indicate their frequency of utilization of VC for teaching and learning at the Faculty of Education. Ekwueme et al. (2016) and Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) posited that video tape instructions is a resource material that has the potentials of increasing the probability that students will learn more, retain and achieve better in their academic performance while Ekon and Edem (2015), confirmed that Computer Based Instructional models are effective teaching avenues that can facilitate students learning and understanding of scientific concepts.
 
The results in Table 4 showed frequency of utilization of VC by the respondents in teaching and learning. It was observed that most of the respondents are utilizing VC. “Occasionally” (47.5%) this is followed by monthly (12.5%) and weekly (10.0%), while (25.0%) never utilized VC at all. These reasons according to the respondents were non    availability of the VC, poor highlighting conditions in classrooms and other instructional models and gargets to aid in installation for effective teaching. Ekon and Edem (2015) concluded that lack of computer-based instructional models may hinder effective teaching processes in Nigeria universities.
 
The respondents were asked to indicate their assessment on the use of VC for effective teaching and learning. Results in Table 5 showed that (97.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that VC is an important resource that support the university curricular for effective teaching. Ninety percent (90.0%) responded that VC is an instructional medium for effective teaching and learning. Others take VC as a corner-stone to blend course to achieve excellence in teaching, as a potential window that can change and expose the minds and heart of many in educational development and as an instructional strategy for academic excellence with 87.5%  response rate. Yet many of them (85.0%) confirmed that VC enhances comprehension and retention. The researchers noticed with dismay the attitude of lecturers towards the utilization of VC at the Faculty of Education due to interrupted power supply, overcrowded lecture room and lack of availability and installation of some technological tools to aid in teaching and learning.
 
 
Challenges associated with the use of VC for teaching and learning processes
 
Respondents were asked to indicate the challenges associated with the use of VC for teaching and learning at the Faculty of Education. As shown in Table 6, the respondents had multiple choice responses to the questions asked. Results showed that interruption in power supply (90.0%), Unavailability computers and other technological tools (87.5%), overcrowded lecture rooms (86.25%), insufficient capacity development in practical activities (75.0%), unavailability of the VC resource materials (75.0%), inadequate provision for in-service programme (75.0%), inadequacy in curriculum availability and lack of awareness on its use (75.0). The results showed that, majority of the respondents were not utilizing VC as they were supposed to do. Ekon and Edem (2015) reported that these challenges may hinder effective utilization of instructional resource materials in teaching and learning in Nigerian Universities.
 
Ways to provide solution
 
Table 7 contains multiple choice responses to the questionnaire. Results showed that Awareness campaign (95.0%) should be carried out by management staff in the faculty of Education through memo, sending e-mails or text. Messages should be sent to lecturers in the various departments concerning the importance of utilization of instructional resources such as video Clip in teaching, and learning for effective students’ academic performance in Nigerian universities. The era of information and communication Technology ICT has brought about more efficient ways of instructing students to learn faster, understand the precepts in topics and courses taught in class for better understanding of the topics: training lecturers on how to use the application and proper in-service training of the resource material will enhance a better teaching and learning of the resource on daily basis for effective service delivery. Constant power supply (90.0%) and proper orientation programme (75.0%) to both staff and students should be organized from time to time for effective capacity building. Introduction of the use of instructional resource materials in the school curricular for practical application should be encouraged (75.0%). In-service training/ workshop (75.0%) on the use of video clip for teaching and learning processes should be organized from time to time for lecturers for capacity building.
 


 CONCLUSION

Most academic lecturers are aware of video clip instructional tool for teaching and learning but the study revealed that their utilization as well as their frequency of utilization is rather low as most respondents (47.5%) used VC occasionally based on the courses taught. The paper reported that some challenges hinder their effective utilization to include power outage, unavailability of computer and other technological tools amongst others.  Based on the findings, the paper recommends that awareness campaign should be carried out by management in the faculty to inform lecturers on the importance of VC usage for teaching and research. Proper in-service training should also be organized from time to time for effective capacity building. The use of instructional resources should be introduced in the school curricular to strengthen the teaching of courses for proper understanding.  Lecturers should also be motivated in the faculty for using video clip in teaching so others will do the same, to improve on students’ academic performance. In-service training/workshop should be organized from time to time for lecturers to build their capacity.  Debt financing this programmed should be serviced through Federal and State government support. There should also be constant power supply, or provision  be made by university management to acquire giant generating plants with large capacities to enable faculty use VCs for effective utilization of instructional resource materials and other technological tools for effective utilization on teaching and learning in Nigerian Universities.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.



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Ekwueme CO, Ekon EE, Ezenwa-Nebife DC (2016). Effect of educational video clip on students' academic performance in basic science and mathematics concepts in junior secondary school three in Cross River State. A paper presented at the South African International Conference on Educational Technologies, 24th- 26th, Pretoria pp. 195-202.

 
 

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