Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1777

Full Length Research Paper

Perceived problems of 4th grade primary school students related to their families and schools

Z. Nurdan BAYSAL
  • Z. Nurdan BAYSAL
  • Department of Basic Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, Marmara Universty, İstanbul, Turkey.
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  • D. Duygu TANRIKULU
  • The Ministry of Education, Deniz- İş Elementary School, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
  • Serap ÇİMŞİR
  • The Ministry of Education, Ali Nihat Tarlan Elementary School, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 11 November 2018
  •  Accepted: 23 January 2019
  •  Published: 23 February 2019


The purpose of this study was to reveal the problems perceived by fourth grade students in their own lives. The research was carried out with a basic interpretative qualitative research design. This method was used in order to examine in depth the vital problems perceived by fourth grade students. For the study, data were collected in the spring term of 2016-2017 academic year. The appropriate/accidental sampling method was used for data collection. Data were obtained from 206 fourth grade students of a primary school in the province of Ümraniye, Istanbul. The data were analyzed by using the content analysis technique. Within the scope of this research, the findings are grouped under three themes; the problems that the students have had the most in their lives, their families and their schools. From the data obtained, the same quotations were made with descriptive analysis technique. It was found that the students who participated in the study perceived the problem of violence, family relations and communication in relation to their own family life. Concerning the school, the participating students mostly perceive problem with their friends, teachers and least about school management. It was concluded that participant students mostly have difficulty in solving and perceiving problems related to course achievement/mathematics/exams, violence, communication, less about personality traits, and at least education and death problems.


Key words: Student problems, elementary school, fourth grade, problem solving, family.


Life becomes increasingly complex and difficult. Individuals face many problems in their daily lives. Depending on the development periods and the conditions in which they live, the problems of an individual also vary.  In  today's  growing  generation,  the sensitivity to problems and the ability to strive for solutions are intensively sought. For problems to be solved, they must first be felt and identified by the individual.
Individuals, from   the   moment   they   are   born, find themselves in a living environment. This environment is often a family environment. The family, which is the smallest unit of society, now consists of parents and children. When the influence of the family on the child is mentioned, the characteristics that first come to mind are hereditary characteristics, but the influence of the family on the child is much wider. The interrelationships among family members and the educational environment created for the child are very important in this field (Oktay, 1997). The attitude of the family plays a decisive role in the relationship with the child. This attitude does not mean giving the child extreme freedom and not applying any disciplinary rules, nor giving any responsibility or preventing his life with emotional demonstrations (Salk, 1995). Parents will need to fine-tune their attitudes in the family setting, as they will find these approaches an important factor in the child's personality development.
As the family is formed by parents and children, the form of communication and relationship that family members establish with each other is determined by the environment of love and respect. In the development of the child, the number of siblings, whether the child is the first child, the parents' approach to each child separately, the separation of the parents, or the death of one parent, one sibling or close relative can also have important effects.
The second institution that the child has after his family, which is an important influence on his education and personality development, is the school. Among children who have just begun to study, some feel very happy at school; and some children are afraid to go to school, fearful, crying, feeling of school phobia can also be observed.
School phobia is the reaction of the child to the fear of separation from the mother on the way to school (Yavuzer, 2000; 220). This can usually be seen in school children between the ages of 6 and 10, and from the first year of school to the end of compulsory education (Yörükoğlu, 1998; 298). According to Eisenberg (1958 as cited in Yörükoğlu, 1998; 298), school phobia, or rather the factors leading to the fear of leaving the home, are largely similar, including the close relationship between the mother and the child; the other is the separation, disease-like conditions that shake this relationship; in other words, the reasons for the fear of losing the mother. Salk (1995) indicated that the reason for the difficulty in adapting to school can be neurological deficiencies, or a condition caused by poor functioning of the glands, and in this case common symptoms; can be the difficulty in achieving reading, bad handwriting, excessive mobility, and a short time of attention. Adler (2014) states that if the child is well prepared for school, the difficulties s/he will face will be less. Yavuzer (2000; 220) stated that the distrust of the child about his life at home might lead to an unconscious fear of going to school. Regardless of the cause, school phobia may be thought to be  a  factor  that can adversely affect the success of the school. As in the case of school phobia, there are many factors that influence the child in building a successful learning life. Özdoğan (2001) lists the factors that play a role in school success in the following way:
1. Interpersonal relationships within the environment in which the child belongs and the family,
2. The behavior of the parents against the child,
3. Relationships between siblings,
4. Physical conditions of the house,
5. Physical and mental health of the child,
6. Child's relationship with school, teacher and schoolmates and the shape of these relationships affects the child's school achievement positively or negatively.
According to Weiner (1982 as cited in Özabacı and Acat, 2005), the causes of school failure are categorized under three headings:
Socio-cultural factors: Low motivation, effects of gender role, effects of close environment (family, friend, school and teacher), Psychological factors: Developmental factors and psychopathological factors, and noncompliance with learning,
Disharmony in relationships within the family: Passive or aggressive behavior, fear of failure.
As can be seen, both school success and failure can be due to the child itself, family or school. All of these factors can significantly affect the child's academic success, personality and life. Especially the elementary school period, in terms of development, contains a series of changes based on the coming years. As their age progresses, children become aware of their problems and are attempting to solve them.
The problem is an obstacle. If there is an obstacle between the situation in which the individual is in, and the situation in which he wants to be, and if this creates tension in the individual, there is a problem for that individual (Ülgen, 1997). The problem, with another narrative, is the obstacles or difficulties that arise to the individual during the transition from one environment or situation to the more preferred one. The problem definition, on the other hand, can be used for all real or abstract situations that need improvement (Stevens, 1998). The problem is something that disturbed the person either physically or in terms of thought; it is a difficulty that has the possibility of multiple solutions (Karasar, 2016).
In everyday life, every person is a problem solver. But the important thing is to be able to solve problems effectively. Effective problem-solving process begins with; courage, willingness, self-confidence, and continues and ends with the birth of new ideas, the formation of critical attitudes, the  practice  of  past  experiences, impressions and emotions. This process can also be learned later (Bingham, 1998). In another sense, the problem is the factor that prevents you from achieving goal. Removing them is possible with the solution of the problem. Gaining and developing problem-solving skills can be viewed as one of the most important responsibilities of families and schools.
Problem solving involves the mental explanation of the problem situation. From the moment the person is confronted with the problem situation, he tries to find a solution to the problem and this result triggers the individual to act. In other words, the person continues to make attempts to solve the problem as the result is revealed. However, if the individual does not have any relevant knowledge of the problem, or if s/he has not faced such a problem before, s/he will probably fail in problem solving (Robertson, 2001, s. 22; as cited in Yıldırım, 2014; 2).
Many factors can be a barrier to solving the problems. Some of these may be due to the psychological state of the individual, while others may be due to the circumstances in which s/he is trying to find a solution. People's view of the world and their reactions to events are generally a result of their experiences. Although individuals do not have all the skills necessary to solve problems, it is possible that they are aware of the factors that prevent them from solving problems (Stevens, 1998). The provision of this awareness at an early age is important and necessary to be able to produce more effective solutions. This can only be achieved with family and school education.
Individuals who are aware of their problems may be able to better explain themselves to the people around them, as well as live a more qualified lifestyle in today's living conditions, where problems are increasingly more and more complex. In no research, the life problems of the students in the primary school period were examined from their own perceptions. The understanding that can be gained from such an inquiry can be useful for parents, schools, teachers and administrators, who have big importance in students' lives, to question themselves in their careers, from the eyes of their students and to make important inferences to understand the problems that primary school students themselves feel. With this need in mind, the purpose of this research is to reveal the problems that primary school fourth graders perceive in their lives.


This work was designed according to the basic interpretive qualitative research design. In this widely used pattern of education field, researchers are interested in how people interpret their lives, what meaning they add to their experiences, and how they create their world (Merriam, 2013). The aim of the basic interpretative qualitative research process is to try to understand the  participants' perceptions of the process, their experiences, their own meanings related to their experiences while interacting with the world. The aim of the researcher in the research process is to understand deeply the participants' perception of a process, a phenomenon, a world view, a perspective (Altheide and Johnson, 2011). Through this research, it is aimed to describe the meanings of the participants and to reveal their awareness. In this context, the basic interpretive qualitative research design was used in this study because it was attempted to describe in detail the understanding and awareness of the problems perceived by elementary school fourth grade students in their own lives. In addition, the aim of the study is not to produce general theories or to obtain the findings from a wider sampling, but to reveal the problems perceived by elementary school fourth graders.
Working group
In the study, one of the random sampling methods, appropriate / accidental sampling has been used. The main objective is to prevent loss of time, money and labor in the appropriate sampling method, also called convenient or accidental sampling (Büyüköztürk et al., 2016). 206 fourth grade students studying at a primary school in Ümraniye district of Istanbul province constitute the study group of the research. The reason why this school was chosen for research is that one of the researchers had worked in that school. The characteristics of the participants of the study are: 110 of the participants are males and 96 are females. 159 participants were 10 years old, 34 were 9 years old, 12 were 11 years old and 1 were 8 years old. 89 of the participants are 2 siblings, 75 are 3 siblings, 24 are 4 siblings, 11 are 1 sibling, 5 are 5 siblings and 2 are 6 siblings. 76 of them have 4, 73 of them have 5, 33 of them have 6, 9 of them have 3, 7 of them have 7, 5 of them have 8, 2 of them have 9 people and 1 of them have 11 people in their families. 
Collection of data
In the collection of the data, an open-ended form was used which was prepared by the researchers and consulted with the opinions of two field experts. In this form, there are three open-ended questions expected to be answered by the primary school fourth graders:
1. What are the problems that make you think and worry the most about your family?
2. What are the problems that make you think and worry the most in your school?
3. What are your most difficult problems to solve in your family and school?
Before the application of this form to the students, research permits were taken, and an open-ended form application calendar was created. Between 5-10 June 2017, the forms were applied to the students by the second author. Filling of the forms ranged from 5 to 10 min. The collection of data was done at the school where the students were studying.
Analysis of data
In the analysis of the data, content analysis method was used. Content analysis is defined as a systematic, repeatable technique in which certain words of a text are summarized by smaller content categories with certain rules-based coding (Büyüköztürk et al., 2016). The basic process in content analysis is to combine similar data within  the  framework of specific concepts and themes, and to interpret them in a way that the reader can understand (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2013). The obtained data were coded and categorized. The data were classified under these categories and made meaningful. The researchers made coding and categorization together. Adhering to the problem and purpose of the research, unnecessary coding was removed, and new coding was added to the required parts. In naming the categories, the researchers moved with compromise. Disputes were resolved by discussing and thus a common agreement on coding and category was reached (Tavşancıl and Aslan, 2001). Because of these processes, three main categories of students' life in their families, problems related to their schools and their most difficult problems were identified, and findings were given under these categories. The determined upper and lower categories are modeled by considering the relations between them and frequency and percentage are calculated to quantify qualitative data. Among the two researchers, subjects of "Consensus" and "Difference of opinion" were identified. The reliability of the study using the reliability formula proposed by Miles and Huberman (1994) was found to be 91%, which is the result of consistent categorization.


In this section, findings from the analysis of the data are arranged taking into account the order of the questions in the sub-objectives of the research.
Findings related to students' perceptions about their family members in their lives
The answers given in the first question of the research, "What are the problems that make you think and worry the most about your family?" are mentioned in Table 1.
Most of the participating students stated that violence is a problem that makes them think and worry the most about their families. In the perceptions of violence, they expressed the following: fighting, being angry, shouting, beating, screaming, mocking and nicknaming. Violence behaviors  may   be   directed   towards  the  participating students by the elders of the family or violence that other family members apply to each other. Among the students there are ones, who is sad for her mother to scream at her from time to time, but whose father, who never shouted, once frowned her and made her cry; who is scolded without deserving; who says his mother is angry with her when her brother is guilty; when the brother gets angry at him, vandalize the objects around him, and makes him afraid; her mother and father are disputing all the time and make him afraid that they are going to divorce. Relationships in the family are also important problems for students. Disagreements among family members and some situations in which family members do not want or are often asked by their parents can also be perceived as problems for the participants. For example; not allowed to go out, not allowed to bring home cats. There are also students who express difficulty in communicating with their parents. The following are the problems that participating students worry and think about communicating with their families: Family pressure, to be forced to study or do any work that one does not want, indifference by the family, elders of the family not keeping the promises, family members sulk each other, unfair behavior within the family.
Some of the responsibilities for participating students are also perceived as problems; including tidying up rooms, looking after siblings, setting and gathering up tables, taking out the trash, being sent to get something by the elders are among the problems that make them very sad and worrying. Students express that while they are doing the chores, they feel sad and do them with difficulty. A student comes home from school. "I cannot do it," she replies to her mother who wants her to go to shopping. Now, the student is very sad because her mother becomes angry at her. Another student says, "My parents want a lot of work from me. I am not a servant".
Some students have stated that they have health problems  in their families. These health problems include  parental illness or the siblings' inability to speak despite growing up. Some students reported that it was sad that their financial situation was bad. It is also a problem that the family owes money and the father goes to work in another city.
Success in the lessons is also seen as a problem between students and their families. For example; if a student does not receive high scores from his courses, he will be sent to the boarding school. Participating students also point out that smoking is a family problem.
In addition, the death of one of the family members for the participating students was also expressed as a very sad event.
Findings on students' perceptions about school related problems
The answers given in the second question of the survey, "What are the problems that make you think and worry the most in your school?" are in Table 2.
When the table is examined, it is seen that the participants mainly report violence they have experienced with their friends most frequently (64 students) as a problem. When the violent behaviors that they express with their friends are examined, it is noteworthy that the situation is dominated by both verbal (cheating, threatening, teasing, nickname, swearing, debate) and physical (beating / hitting, tripping, squeezing, pushing, dropping).
Participants expressed that they have experienced important situations in their friendship relations, which both upset and thought them. Problems include leaving friends / friends left for another school, do not want to play with friends, forcing friends to do things they do not want, to be complaining to the teacher, forcing friends not to play with, and boys asking to marry their girlfriends.
Also, it is among the participants' communication problems to think that no one wants him/her to be in that class and unable to establish friendship. In addition to these, the following problems also disturb, annoy and worry students: Disrespect, jealousy, stubbornness, gossiping, being left halfway, always wanting to be a leader, slandering, being show off.
Participant students stated that they had some problems  while   playing   games   with   their   friends  (6 students). These problems include: not getting into the game / being out of the game because of the inferiority of the hair and clothes, falling on his own / tripped by someone else while playing, and being forced to play a disliked game.
Students expressed the following problems with their teachers: appointment to leave for other school (2 students), teacher's redemption, punishment, difficulty of examination (6 students). Students also expressed the problem that the teachers were not informing them about the day they would not come to the school.
Students see the physical facilities of their schools among their problems (8 students). It is a perceived problem that the school is dirty, there are few classes, there is no sports hall-football field-basket pot and everybody pushes each other while going out on rainy days.
For 12 students there, mathematics is a problem (problems, division, multiplication operations), for 3 students school phobia and for 4 students health (fainting, injuring) is a problem. Some of the students speak of personality (2 students-shyness) and habits (getting up early morning, being late to school-6 students). 3 students feel that it is a problem to carry a bag.
Findings for the most challenging problems for students to solve
The answers to the third question of the research, "What are your most difficult problems to solve in your family and school?" are given in Table 3.
When Table 3 is examined, the most  difficult  to  solve problems for students are course success, mathematics and exams (35 students). The students also expressed the following problems in their difficulties: Reading books, Turkish language questions, Turkish language examinations, studying for the exams, not understanding the lessons, understanding human rights, not doing homework and unable to get appreciation certificate. Again, mathematics is perceived as a problem that is difficult to solve on its own. Problems in mathematics, multiplication-division and course examination are among the problems that are difficult to solve.
It is seen that the participant students are having difficulty to solving the violence and they perceive this as a problem (23 students). Violence behaviors, which they express difficulty in solving, are often pointed out to be yelling, being angry-verbal violence, fight-physical violence.
The problems that are difficult to solve regarding the communication (19 students): Bad words are spoken, sulking, unable to reconcile, disagreement, failure to separate the fighting people, threats, insistence, The Syrians do not have full knowledge of Turkish.
Problems that are difficult to solve in family relations (9 students): Separation of parents, failure to make sister/brother happy, bored at home, uncle is drinking and beating parents, relocation.
Fear problems that 5 students have difficulty to solve: Stay locked in the masjid, chased by the dog, characters in the horror movies, loneliness, to be lost.
Three students stated that they have difficulty to solve the following personality traits: Shyness, excitement in the reading aloud, shame because of the mistake they made.
Apart from these, theft of belongings (3 students), throwing away garbage (3 students), broken leg (3 students), unable to decide which team he will be in or what clothes to buy (2 students), not going to junior high school (1 student), and death of one of the family members (1 student) are the problems they are having difficulty to solve.


The results of problems perceived by primary school fourth graders in their own lives are:
1. Problems perceived by students about their families are: violence (44 students), relationships (42 students), communication (13 students), financial situation (6 students), habits/bad habits (3 students) and expectations (1 student).
2. Problems students perceive about their school: problems with their friends (64 students), problems with their courses (32 students), problems with their teachers (15 students) management  problems  (1  student),  other problems (4 students).
3. The most difficult problems for students to solve are: course failures (35 students), violence (23 students), personality traits (3 students), theft (3 students), education (1 student), death (1 student).
According the Dam (2008)’s study titled "The Family Factor in the School Success of the Student", the most common family problems of students are indifference, communication problems, lack of appropriate study environment, mother and/or father's death. In addition, other family problems of the students are the separation of parents, quarrels between parents, poverty, various diseases and separation from family.  The communication, debate and fighting problems that arise in that study overlap with the students' most stated violence and relationships/communication problems in the families of this study. Also, in this study, the financial problems and the problem of death are parallel as similar problems.
Alendy (1975) says that family quarrels have a negative impact on the mental health of the child, and that low family income is a difficult problem to solve. This coincides with the finding in our study that students perceive violence and financial situation as a problem.
Adler (2014) states that the children who grow deprived of love lack the feeling of sociality. Since human is a social being, the importance of sociality in the life of the individual is also undeniable. In the present study, the problems of violence, lack of communication, relations between siblings and the problems that students have difficulty in perceiving and solving related to their families and schools are similar to the problem of lack of love environment.
Tabaru-Örnek and Çoban-Sural (2018) in their study named “Investigation of the Relationship Between Self Concepts and Problem-Solving Skills of Fourth Grade Students”, found a significant positive correlation between self-perception and problem solving skills of children. As problem solving skills increase, being happy with the sub-dimensions of self-perception, popularity, physical appearance, intelligence and school status scores increased. In addition, it was found that there was a significant difference between self-perception and problem-solving skills according to gender and this difference was in favor of female students. In the present study, the perception of school success as a problem and the expression of other problems in the family reveal the importance of training of individuals who can identify and solve problems. 
The study on social and environmental problems reflected by primary school students' caricature drawings made by Ersoy and Türkkan (2010) participant students touched on social problems such as, paying too much attention to the money, family unrest, the intensity of lessons and homework, violence and fighting, television and internet addiction in the caricatures they draw. Again, in the same study, a student named Ayla talked about the unrest in her caricature. Ayla depicts the cartoon she draws like this: "There is a wife and husband. The man is eating the woman's head because the guy makes the woman very angry (by talking). People eat each other's flesh and do not like the situation at all." Ayla emphasized that most people in her family and her environment behave like this. The findings of that study are like this study: the existence of many problems in the family, unrest, failure in the courses.
In Ersoy and Türkkan (2010)’s study, participant Tuğba handled the issue of violence within the classroom in her caricature. In her caricature, Tuğba drew youths fighting in classroom environment and injuring each other. In this study, the fact that students have "violence" at the beginning of the list of problems they have experienced both in their families and with their friends in the school is remarkable and overlaps as a finding that should be addressed. According to Yavuzer (2000; 61), scolding the children in a hard manner and humiliating them cause the children to learn to scare and reprimand others. Both in the family and in the classroom, violence is a condition that can negatively affect both the mental structure and learning of children. Adler (2014) said that the immediate punishment of the child would give rise to the child's humiliated and neglected feelings; and stated that the sentence was not the way out. In this study, it is noteworthy that there is a problem of violence at the beginning of the problems experienced by both students and their families.
It is necessary for the developing child's mental health that the parents show love, respect and understanding to each other. From the time of birth, a baby in need of his or her parents, needs their attention in the first childhood and even in the age of youth (Oktay, 1997). However, in this study it is a remarkable fact to mention that some of the students have a problem of indifference.
Parents should give little responsibilities to their children. If children overcome these responsibilities, their appreciation, interest and compassion, and the happiness of having achieved a job will encourage and please them (Salk, 1995).  It is useful to underline the expression "small" mentioned here. However, participant students perceive the responsibilities such as "tidying rooms up, looking after their siblings, setting up tables, taking garbage out, go somewhere to do the bidding by the elders" as a problem. It is necessary to approach the discussion as to what level of responsibilities is appropriate for children's developmental characteristics. It can also be considered that students may be forced not to fulfill their actual responsibilities while trying to perform these tasks assigned to them, which may lead to academic failure.
In Ersoy and Türkkan (2010) study, two of the participant students talked about the intensity of the lessons   and   assignments.  Yeliz   drew   a  child  in  his caricature (Caricature 5), saying, "My mind is swollen, the information does not fit in my head." and she stated that she is that child. Yeliz told that she was tired of studying, "I live in this problem myself, my head is swollen when I come home from school, my head is getting cluttered, I have drawn it by looking at myself" (interview). She suggested reducing the number of lessons and studying with a plan to solve this problem. Murat also focused on the intensity of the lessons in his caricature (Caricature 6). Murat stated the purpose of drawing his caricature: ' I did it against the homework because the teachers gave too much homework. I want to tell you that there are too many assignments and that you are squeezing us" (written opinion). The conclusion of this study on the lessons and assignments and the conclusion in our study overlap about the perception of the problem of course failure after the problems with school and friends.
Akça et al. (2015) in their work titled “Evaluation of the Attitude and Behavior of Mothers Admitted to a Family Health Center on Domestic Violence against Children”, they listed the reasons that led to the most conflicts in the home as problems between the siblings, their nutrition, sleep and education. As a result, it was revealed that most of the mothers participating in the research were able to apply physical violence to their children as a method of training and they were not sufficiently aware of the developmental problems that this could create about the children. These results coincide with the findings of the current research on violence, interpersonal communication and relations between siblings.
Derman and Başal (2013) in their work titled “The Relationship Between Behavioral Problems in Preschool Children and Their Parents' Parenting Attitudes”, they identified that families of withdrawn, hyperactive, jealous children, have moderate levels of rejection of the housewife attitude; and that the families of children who have a poor appetite are overly stubborn, have tapping behavior and nail-biting issues, have low levels of rejection of the housewife attitude. The fact that families do not have a democratic attitude causes children to have various problems related to themselves and their environment. This coincides with the problems found in the present study on inter-family relations, communication, and relationships between siblings.
Kazak-Ekinci (2016), in the conclusion of her thesis “The Perception of the Mothers of Children Drawn to Crime: Siirt Example”, had important findings regarding the phenomenon of recurrent crime in the city. It was found that all of the children who were drawn to crime have multiple siblings; mothers mostly attributed their children’s crime tendencies as a result of their friends, social environment, poverty, and lack of education. Another important finding is that children are exposed to physical violence at every moment of their lives (family, school, social environment). Nearly all the mothers who participated in  the   study  have  been  imprisoned.  Most children were found to have smoking, marijuana and drug habits. Almost all the mothers included in the study stated that their children had failed education and left school. These results coincide with the findings of the current study that students are exposed to violence in the family and at school and that they experience problems in communication and school failure. Kazak-Ekinci (2016)’s findings on multiple siblings, sibling jealousy, violence, school failure, children's misdemeanor, drug addiction; emphasizes the importance of the early analysis of similar problems in the present research.
Adler (2014) states that the youngest child in the family is trying to keep up with the older child, and that jealousy of the older child against younger one, may have a negative effect on the younger child's school success. In the present study, findings on the problem of ‘’not being happy with your brother and sister“, which is one of the problems that children perceive regarding their families, coincides with sibling jealousy and school failure. According to Alendy (1975; 163), the secretory glands, sensory organs and mood structure of the children who fail in their classes or who have behaved abnormally should be examined. In addition, Yavuzer (2000) stated that school failure may arise for a variety of reasons and among them, the domestic family life and outside life of the child, developmental characteristics, family and communication errors and inadequacies can be found.
Based on the results of this study, the following suggestions can be made:
(i) Students in the survey perceived the problem of violence the most. From this, family awareness seminars, meetings, conferences and trainings should be held to ensure that children do not have violence within the family so that they can be healthy in development, lesson success and friendship.
(ii) Similar training should be given to the students about what problems are and how they can solve problems.
(iii) Awareness training should be given to students so that they can recognize and reinforce learning strategies that can improve their course success.
(iv) Parents should be given trainings to establish healthy communication with their students.
(v) Parents and teachers should be given training not to give intensive lessons and home works to the children that may cause problems and training for "correct responsibility giving awareness".


The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.



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