International Journal of
Educational Administration and Policy Studies

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Educ. Admin. Pol. Stud.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6656
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJEAPS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 207

Full Length Research Paper

Strategic leadership factors of school administrators influencing the effectiveness of small- sized schools

Torsak Singphen
  • Torsak Singphen
  • Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education, Chaiyaphum Rajabhat University, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar
Piangkhae Poopayang
  • Piangkhae Poopayang
  • Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education, Chaiyaphum Rajabhat University, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar
Sunan Siphai
  • Sunan Siphai
  • Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education, Chaiyaphum Rajabhat University, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar
Prayoon Charoensuk
  • Prayoon Charoensuk
  • Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education, Chaiyaphum Rajabhat University, Chaiyaphum, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 22 January 2019
  •  Accepted: 28 March 2019
  •  Published: 30 April 2019

 ABSTRACT

This research is aimed to study the direct, indirect and total influence of strategic leadership factors of school administrators influencing the effectiveness of small-sized schools. The samples were 1,396 administrators of small-sized schools under the primary educational service area office, the Basic Education Commission in the academic year 2017. The population was 15,999 small-sized school administrators who are administrating in small-sized schools under the primary educational service area office of the Basic Education Commission of Thailand. The research was conducted in the same academic year. It was found that Setting Organizational Direction (SETTD) had direct influence, an indirect influence, and a total influence on the effectiveness of most small-sized schools. In addition, strategy formulation (STRAT) had an indirect influence higher than the strategy implementation with the influence value of 0.044. The strategic control and evaluation (EVALU) had a direct influence and a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized school with the influence value of 0.046. The model for developing the strategic leadership of school administrators of small-sized schools was obtained.
 
Key words: strategic leadership factors, effectiveness of school, small-sized school.
 


 INTRODUCTION

Basic educational institute is considered the most important foundation of the Ministry of Education of Thailand under Thai Government state’s basic education system. It is an important unit of compulsory and basic education because there is a close relationship with the community as it is the organizer of teaching and learning activities for youth development in the country under the National Education Act B.E. 2542 (1999) and amended No. 2 Act B.E. 2545 (2002). In the academic year 2014, there were 30,922 educational institutions under  the  Office  of  the  Basic  Education Commission. Also, there were 15,599 educational institutions with Thai students of lower than 120 people, accounting of 51.71% of all schools from 77 provinces of Thailand (Policy and Planning Division of Thailand, OBEC, 2015). Having many small-sized schools has affected the efficiency and effectiveness of educational management due to the lack of budget support from the government sector, community support and teachers in terms of both quantity and qualified teachers. Many small-sized schools are located in remote areas where infrastructure systems are not accessible. Some places are in the areas with a lot social and cultural differences or multicultural society. Some schools are located in the area under the conflict of ideas. Therefore, there is complexity in the quality of education management system, which is considered as the problem of national education management for small-sized schools. Based on the data from the Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment, which summarized the results of the third external quality assessment of schools in the basic education levels of a period of 4 years (2011 to 2015), more than 9,000 small-sized schools were not certified with the educational standards, most of which were small- sized schools located outside the city under the Office of Basic Education Commission (Office of National Education Standards and Quality Assessment, 2016). The problems and the importance mentioned earlier have been considered a crisis in the educational quality of small-sized schools at the effectiveness level from the past to the present.
 
The major problem of small-sized schools in Thailand may be associated with inequality in education management compared to medium-sized schools, and large-sized schools in Thailand. The inequality in this case refers to financial supports from communities (according to the aforementioned small-sized location details), inadequacy of both quantity and pedagogical qualification of teachers (there are not enough teachers who specialize in teaching some subjects which they are assigned by the administrators to teach. Due to being allocated teachers from the Ministry of Education, the number of teachers must be consistent with the number of students. In other words, when the number of students is low, the amount of teachers is small also), and inadequacy of basic infrastructure (related to the school’s location) and the budget allocated (because the Ministry of Education allocates budget for small schools according to the number of students actually studying which students in small schools have small numbers). Therefore, it is the duty of small-sized school administrators to properly manage the school under these challenging circumstances. However, according to the results of the small-sized school competition in Thailand in 2015, there were 656 small-sized schools that won best practice awards. Moreover, those schools were the models for other small-sized schools in management, community participation, effective educational innovations, and the quality of school administrators (OBEC, 2015).
 
According to Day and Sammons (2013), it could be inferred that one of the main factors is the result of the leadership management of small-sized school administrators that lead the organizations to the goals at the effectiveness level of educational institutes. This corresponds to educators’ views stating that leadership of school administrators is one of the key elements that will lead the organizations to the success and  the  goals of the organization. There is a saying that the success or failure of school administration depends largely on the leadership of the organization’s leaders (Meador, 2013; Crawford, 2003; Sarrattana, 2014). Schools are similar to organizations, school administrators are the same as the organization leaders.
 
Leadership, therefore, is very important to the success of the organization because it is the factor that makes the organization lively and able to survive. In addition, leadership helps to develop the organization in a new direction that is the direction that the organization needs to move towards (Bennis and Nanus, 1985). Davies and Davies (2004), states that school administrators are required to focus on strategies. Strategic leaders must be able to drive school strategy. Strategic leadership is a theory that describes processes of the organization’s direction setting, creating and implementing strategies into practice to achieve the objectives of the organization (Sarrattana, 2014).
 
Sarrattana (2014) claimed that those who apply strategic leadership must keep up with changes in internal and external situations, anticipate the future of the organization in the long term, and develop strategies to aim for a desirable future. Also, he claimed the ones who adopt strategic leadership in organization’s administration should be able to control and evaluate the strategy which is an activity that must be carried out continuously to ensure that the organization’s strategy is in line with the set goals which can indicate progress or provide feedback to the management (Hunt and Osborn, 2000). According to the previous research, it could be found that there are four major factors which relate to strategic leadership that the organization leaders expressed with the clear action which as scholars have given the same viewpoint. Those factors includes; Strategic direction setting (Dess and Miller, 1993; Dubrin, 1998; Bateman and Snell, 1999; Ireland and Hitt, 1999; Schermerhorn, 1999; Hunt and Osborn, 2000; Nahavandi and Malekzadeh, 2000; Hinterhuber and Friedrich, 2002; Robbins and Coulter, 2005; Ireland and Michael,  2005; Gill, 2006; Dubrin, 2006; Hitt, 2010,  strategic setting (Nahavandi and Malekzadeh, 2000; Robbins and Coulter, 2005; Gill, 2006; Hitt et al., 2007), strategic implementation (Dess and Miller, 1993; Bateman and Snell, 1999; Schermerhorn, 1999; Hunt and Osborn, 2000; Hinterhuber and Friedrich, 2002; Gill, 2006), strategic evaluation and control  (Ireland and Hitt, 1999; Schermerhorn, 1999; Hunt and Osborn, 2000; Robbins and Coulter, 2005; Ireland and Michael, 2005; Hitt, 2010).
 
The four major factors of the strategic leadership of the organization leaders are the model of factors that influence the effectiveness of the organization (as the research results of Jyoti and Sharma, 2011; Tang et al., 2013). The research found that factors determining organizational direction influence organizational effectiveness. According  to  Sorooshian et al. (2010) and Nair et al. (2010), it was found that strategic imple-mentation influences the organization’s effectiveness. According to Zheng et al. (2010), Naserinajafabady et al. (2013), Aldulaimi (2015), Kopmann et al. (2016), it was found that strategic direction setting influences organization’s effectiveness. According to Omran et al. (2009), Yaacob (2012), Kopmann et al. (2016), it was found that strategic evaluation and control influences organization’s effectiveness. According to the sequence of causes and effects in the areas of strength, importance, activity characteristics and past research results of strategic leadership factors, it is clear that the strategic leadership factors of corporate executives have a great influence on organizational effectiveness. Therefore, there is a high possibility that the effectiveness gap of small schools has not yet reached the goal. One of the main factors comes from the behavior of the school leadership’s strategic leadership, especially under challenging circumstances of small-sized schools. Small-sized school administrators, thereby, should focus and be aware of this problem and the policy of the Ministry of Education under the Office of the Basic Education Commission which demands the equality in the education management of small-sized schools. Therefore, the concept of this research is to study the direct influence, the indirect influence, and the total influence of strategic leadership factors of school administrators affecting the effectiveness of small-sized schools.
 
Research objectives
 
To study a direct influence, an indirect influence and a total influence of strategic leadership factors of school administrators influencing the effectiveness of small-sized schools, standard error of mean (SEM) might be appropriate to explain that strategic leadership factors of school administrators have direct influence, indirect influence, and total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools. The aforementioned strategy might also relate to the previous study either the positive aspects or negative aspects.


 METHODOLOGY

This research is a quantitative research process showing the path of the influence of four latent variables comprises; setting organizational direction (SETTD), strategy implementation (ACTIO), strategy formulation (STRAT) and strategic control and evaluation (EVALU) that were developed from the study of theories related to selection, evaluation and control of variables for research. These factors are the factors that influence the effectiveness of small- sized schools (EEFFT).
 
Research question
 
How does strategic leadership factors of school administrators have direct  influence,   indirect   influence,   and   total  influence  on  the effectiveness of small-sized schools?
 
Sample
 
The samples in this research were 1,396 administrators of small-sized schools in the North, Northeast, Central and Southern parts of Thailand under the Primary Educational Service Area Office, the Basic Education Commission in the academic year 2017. They were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method from the total population of 15,599 small-sized school administrators in the same academic year.
 
Research tools
 
Research instrument was a 5 level rating scale questionnaire with 104 questions by synthesizing related research and documents. The research tool was examined by a group of 9 experts, consisting of a group of experts in educational administration, psychological expert group, and a group of experts in educational assessment. The index of item-objective congruence of each question ranged from 0.86 to 1.00. The item discrimination values were 0.49 to 0.93 with statistical significance at the level of 0.05 in all items. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96.
 
Data analysis
 
Descriptive statistics and t-test were employed for data analysis using SPSS for Windows. Path-analysis was administered by Mplus version 7.2.


 RESULTS

According to Table 1, the weight value of a direct influence, an indirect influence and a total influence of strategic leadership factors of school administrators influences the effectiveness of small-sized schools, it was revealed that setting organizational direction had a direct influence, an indirect influence and a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools the most. The influence values are 0.591, 0.278, and 0.869, respectively, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01 of all influence paths. Strategy implementation (ACTIO) had a direct influence, an indirect influence and a total influence on the effectiveness of most small-sized schools with the influence values of 0.236, 0.018, and 0.254 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. Moreover, strategy formulation (STRAT) had an indirect influence higher than the strategy implementation with the influence value of 0.044 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The strategic control and evaluation (EVALU) had a direct influence and a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized school where the influence value was 0.046 with statistical significance at the level of 0.05.
 
Figure 1 shows the path to the influence of the leadership factors of the school administrators that influence  the  effectiveness  of  small-sized  schools. The letters in the oval mean latent variables. The letters in the box means the observation variable. The arrow means the path of influence, and the composition of the weight.
 
 


 DISCUSSION

Setting organizational direction and the effectiveness of small-sized schools
 
Setting organizational direction is the one with the most total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools. The influence value was 0.869 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01 and those of the direct influence and the indirect influence are 0.591 and 0.278, respectively, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01 in all influence paths. The results of the path analysis indicated that it is very important that school administrators must focus on the direction of the organization in order to achieve organizational effectiveness. The direction of the organization is to determine the main goal that shows the organization’s image in terms of efficiency and the effectiveness of the organization in the future by forecasting and determining the future, together with having a high level of understanding, conceptual dimension, analyzing, synthetizing and a  revolutionary thinking  process. The ability to use the necessary factors to formulate strategies for creating an advantage and be able to communicate useful visions to the organization’s personnel in order to allow them to know the future direction of the organization is also needed. Dess and Miller (1993), studied strategic leadership and found that the first activity for strategic leadership was setting a direction to create a vision that is easy to understand and the strategies having meaning to the business, technology or organizational culture. Likewise, Schermerhorn et al. (2000), stated that setting a direction of the organization is done in the competitive environment and operations to achieve a successful competition. This is consistent with the view of Hitt et al. (1999), stating that establishing organizational direction is to set the thrust of the organization so that the objectives and the direction of business operations can be administered in a concrete manner. According to NCSL (2005), DuBrin (2006), Davies and Davies (2008), Hitt (2007), the strategic leadership is led by direction. Hitt et al. (1998), DuBrin (1998), Hitt et al. (2010), also agreed that strategic leader defines the direction of the organization and gather multiple inputs to formulate strategy. Strategic leadership may be comparable to the people with high concentration in working independently. Ireland and Hitt (1999), explained that the capabilities needed for effective strategic leadership in the new competitive trend predicted for the 21st century is to define the organizational direction through development and communication of vision, which can work independently and clearly define the future.
 
In addition, the factors determining the direction of the organization and the effectiveness of the school were also consistent with previous research results. For example, Jyoti and Sharma (2011) studied factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India and found that determining the direction of entrepreneurs influenced satisfaction, including business satisfaction, satisfaction in doing business, satisfaction with family support and personnel satisfaction. Tang et al. (2013), examined the effects of the process of determining business direction on the organization’s performance. The results of the study showed that the business direction process had a great influence on the innovative organizational performance.
 
Moreover, setting organizational direction had an indirect influence on the effectiveness of small- sized schools through strategy formulation and strategy implementation. The results of the research showed the significance of setting organizational direction.
 
According to Davies and Davies (2008), setting organizational direction is the duty of a strategic leader to define the framework of the organization that must benefit the organization in the future.  Ireland and Michael (2005), studied achieving and maintaining a perfect strategy in the 21st century “The role of strategic leadership”, and found that strategic leadership in the 21st century also focused on setting clear direction and vision. Jaoua and Radouche (2014), conducted an empirical study on the moderating role of leader skills on the relationship between strategic management and global performance. The research found that leadership skills consisted of technical skills of management, management skills and entrepreneurial skills which had a direct influence on strategic management. Pinyopasakul (2009), also stated that the direction of the organization determined the strategies and operations of all aspects of the organization in order to be consistent and in the same direction.
 
Strategy implementation and the effectiveness of small-sized schools
 
Strategy implementation had a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools with the influence value of 0.254 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The direct influence and the indirect influence values were 0.236 and 0.018 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01 and 0.05, respectively.  The  results  of  the  path  analysis  indicated  the  importance  and  the  need of school administrators in showing strategic leadership in terms of strategy implementation. When setting the direction of the organization and organization’s strategy, various strategies that have been analyzed and synthesized must be used for the concrete imple-mentation process.  Strategy  implementation  requires  a variety of activities, including planning, organizational management, strategy implementation and implementation control. Bateman and Snell (1999), discussed that strategic leaders must be able to change their vision into valuable practices which are consistent with the goals. Dess and Miller (1993), also discussed that strategy implementation is  instilling a culture which is related to the excellence of the organization’s virtues. All of the employees in the organization must be encouraged to have a common vision and understand the strategies in order to be able to work together with maximum ability and morality. Robbins and Coulter (2003), also agreed that the strategy will be effective when it is implemented. Although the administrators have planned the strategy perfectly, if there is no proper practice, it will not benefit the organization. Regarding the strategic leaders appropriate for the 21st century, Ireland and Hitt (1999) stated that as the globalization context grows, both in the broad and deep dimensions, along with the increasingly intense competition, it is necessary that strategic leaders in the 21st century carry out activities that promote culture, sustainable effectiveness of the organization with stimulation and openness to everyone as follows; Strategic leaders must adhere to and focus on various practices with ethics by showing integrity and morality. They must also adhere to their principles and have the ability to inspire employees to conduct business based on the principles of ethics. Strategic leaders in the 21st century must be able to create effectiveness and organizational balance between the control that emphasizes flexibility and the new initiatives which aim at short-term and long-term results.
 
In addition, strategy implementation and the effectiveness of small-sized schools were also consistent with previous research results. Sorooshian et al. (2010), studied effect analysis on strategy implementation and found that strategy implementation consisting of quality of leadership, the emphasis on structure and human resource management had a positive effect on financial performances, including the cost of goods and returns. It was also in accordance with the study of Nair et al. (2010), which studied the patterns of strengthening environmental procurement and implementing strategies effectively. The study found that strategic positioning helped to increase the relationship among the performances of procurement, and the supplier’s strategic assessment helped to increase the effectiveness of the organization’s procurement.
 
Moreover, strategy implementation had a positive indirect influence on the effectiveness of small- sized schools through strategic control and evaluation. The results pointed out the importance of strategy implementation. Wheelen and Hunger (2012a), also discussed about the strategic management and business. They pointed out that the elements of situation analysis, organization strategy, strategy implementation  and control and evaluation interact with each other. The elements acting as both causes and effects and are defined as a planning model that presents what the organization should do in terms of strategic management. Kopmann et al. (2016), studied the role of project portfolio management in fostering both deliberate and emergent strategies and found that deliberate and emergent strategies had an effect on the success of the project as they supported each other in an uncertain environment. Using strategy and deliberate strategy as an intermediary affected the efficiency of strategic control. The research results indicated that strategic control at the level of project success played an important role in strategic management.
 
Strategy formulation and the effectiveness of small-sized schools
 
Strategy formulation had a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools with the influence value of 0.197 with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The direct influence and the indirect influence values were 0.152 and 0.004, respectively, with statistical significance at the level of 0.0 of all influence paths. The results of the path analysis pointed out the importance of the strategy formulation that influenced the effectiveness of small-sized schools. The strategic leadership of administrators must define various strategies or many options that are able to formulate strategic direction effectively and efficiently for the organization. After that, the strategy that responds to the best results is selected and integrated to be compatible with other organizational strategies. It can be changed in a timely manner if it does not respond to the achievement at the goal level or the objectives of the organization. It is important to realize and give importance to the use and the maintenance of the strengths of the strategy that is the core of the organization’s performance because this strategy will create identity and effectiveness for the organization. This is consistent with the ideas of Bateman and Snell (1999), Thompson and Strickland (1995), and Dess and Miller (1993), stating that strategy formulation is to consider the ways to achieve vision and long-term objectives through a sensible strategy analysis process. It is also a process of designing and selecting strategies that lead to achieving organizational objectives. The methods that can be used in this step include critical question analysis, SWOT, BCG (Goston consulting group growth-share matrix) and GE (General electric’s multifactor portfolio matrix).
 
Additionally, the results of the strategy formulation and the effectiveness of small-sized schools is also consistent with previous research results. For example, Zheng et al. (2010) found that the organization’s strategy influenced the effectiveness of the organization. Similarly, Naserinajafabady et  al.  (2013), did a  study on the effects of organizational culture, structure and strategy on organizational effectiveness by using knowledge management, a case study of seven international transportation companies and found that the organization’s strategy had a direct influence on the effectiveness of the organization. Aldulaimi (2015), conducted a survey of organizational culture, leadership and organizational strategies on the effects of knowledge management and organizational effectiveness. The results of the research revealed that organizational strategies had an influence on knowledge management, organizational culture and leadership. In addition, organizational strategies  also  had  both  direct  and  indirect  influence  on  organizational  effectiveness. The indirect influence was through organizational culture and knowledge management. Kopmann et al. (2016), studied the role of project portfolio management in fostering both deliberate and emergent strategies and found that deliberate and emergent strategies had an effect on the success of the project as they supported each other in an uncertain environment and decreased the relevance of the use of deliberate strategies. Strategic control activities did not only support the deliberate strategies, but also revealed strategic opportunities by launching new strategic models. The research also found that using strategy and deliberate strategy as an intermediary affected the efficiency of strategic control. It also indicated that strategic control at the level of project success played an important role in strategic management.
 
Furthermore, strategy formulation also had a positive indirect influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools through strategy implementation and strategic control and evaluation. The results showed the importance of strategy formulation. Wheelen and Hunger (2012b), discussed about the perspective of strategic management and business policy of the global sustainability approach. They indicated that the elements of situation analysis, organization strategy, strategy implementation and control and evaluation interact with each other. The elements acting as both causes and effects and are defined as a planning model that presents what the organization should do in terms of strategic management. Esfahani and Elahi (2012), studied administrative organizations strategic control model. The study proposed an appropriate model of strategic control within the Iranian administrative departments. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between the use and strategy formulation of local government organizations. Strategy implementation and strategy formulation of the country administration organizations were related to the strength of participation of local administrative organizations. Baroto et al. (2014), conducted a study on effective strategy implementation. The study proposed an integrated model that collected the perspective of resources based on the concept of “McKinsey  7S”  and the perspective of industry organizations. The research found that strategy formulation, administration and evaluation throughout the organization influenced the strategy implementation.
 
Strategic control and evaluation and the effectiveness of small-sized schools
 
Strategic control and evaluation had a total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized school with the influence value was 0.046 with statistical significance at the level of 0.05. It was a direct influence. The results of the path analysis showed the importance of strategic control and evaluation because it is an extremely important tool that can determine the direction of the organization. It also tells how strategy formulation of organization and strategy implementation respond to the objectives, the goals and the standards both in terms of quantity and quality. Strategic control and evaluation of strategic leadership of administrators is done by evaluating actual performance and comparing it with the standards. Then the causes of the deviation are considered. They will be corrected and improved if they are not in accordance with the objectives, the goals and the standards set. Many scholars said that control is an activity to ensure that the organization’s strategy is in line with the goals of the organization, which can indicate progress or provide feedback to the administrators so that the administrators will know about what benefits the organization receive and what should be corrected if the outcome is not as expected (Tan, 1994). Control is a mechanism used to track performance and productivity in the scope that is considered (Schermerhorn, 1999), or, it is a process of assessing the work that has been planned in order to ensure that the operation can achieve the manager’s objectives (Batemen and Snell, 1999). Control and assessment is a follow-up of performance and correcting what is needed (Schermerhorn et al., 2000). Hitt et al. (2010), discussed about the key elements of strategic leadership for 21st century in terms of strategic leadership capabilities as cited in Hitt et al. (1998) and Ireland and Hitt (1999) which explained that the capabilities necessary for effective strategic leadership in the new competitive landscape predicted for the 21st century include the effectiveness in the development and control of balance. The control system allows the organization to manage financial capital and operational control and to ensure that the implemented potential strategies are well controlled and evaluated.
 
Also, strategic control and assessment of the effectiveness of schools was consistent with previous research results. Said et al. (2009), conducted a research on the relationship of quality management, strategic control system and financial performance of the Malaysian Local Governments. The results showed that the strategic control system had a direct influence on the financial performance of the government. It was also consistent with the study of Yaacob (2012), studying the relationship of Total Quality Management (TQM), strategic control systems and organizational performance, which the study results pointed out that the strategic control system had a direct influence on the organizational performance. Kopmann et al. (2016), studied the role of project portfolio management in fostering both deliberate and emergent strategy and found that strategic control at the level of project success played an important role in strategic management.


 CONCLUSION

Strategic leadership factors of school administrators have direct influence. Indirect influence and overall influence on the effectiveness of small schools in positive direction in all factors with statistically significant. From the research results, it was found that the strategic leadership factors of school administrators had direct influence, indirect influence, and total influence on the effectiveness of small-sized schools in positive direction in all factors with statistically significant significance. The strategic direction setting and implementing the strategy are the factors that weigh the influence on the effectiveness of small schools at a high level, compared to the other factors. For the control and evaluation strategy, the weight factor influences the effectiveness of the school, lower than other factors. Therefore, small-sized school administrators who demonstrate a high level of strategic leadership will influence the effectiveness of the school as well. This research results are therefore consistent with the theory and past research results.
 
The author would like to explain that education management in Thailand still has inequality especially the education management of small-sized schools. When compared to medium and large schools (various issues as the author wrote earlier in the issue of small-sized school issues). Ministry of Education and the Office of the Basic Education Commission provides equal education in all schools to reduce inequality which reduces the educational disparity of small-sized schools in addition to being supported by the Ministry of Education school administrators must also demonstrate leadership as an organization leader. Moreover, one of the results that proved that there was no disparity in small-sized schools in Thailand was the effectiveness of the schools.


 RECOMMENDATION

The results of this research indicated that strategic leadership factors had a significant influence on the effectiveness of small schools because it is a factor that has been examined by the research process. Therefore, it is necessary to use as a database for developing strategic leadership of school administrators who administrate small-sized schools or other schools with similar problems, especially the expression of strategic leadership factors of school administrators affecting school effectiveness to respond to the policy of the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Basic Education Commission which hopes to provide education management of small-sized schools in Thailand without the disparity (equality).

 


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.



 REFERENCES

Aldulaimi S (2015) Exploring The Effect of Organizational Culture, Leadership and Strategy on Organizational Effectiveness with Mediating Effect of Knowledge Management. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management 3(4):121-132.

 

Baroto MB, Arvand N, Ahmad FS (2014). Effective strategy implementation. Journal of Advanced Management Science 2(1)1:50-54.
Crossref

 
 

Bateman TS, Snell SA (1999). Management: Building competitive advantage 4th Ed. Irwin McGrow-Hill, Inc, Boston.

 
 

Bennis W, Nanus B (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. Harper & Row, New York.

 
 

Crawford M (2003) Inventive management and wise leadership. In: B. Bennett, M. Crawford and M Cartwright (Ed.) Effective educational leadership. Paul Chapman Publishing, London.

 
 

Day C, Sammons P (2013). Successful leadership: A review of the international literature. CfBT Education Trust. 60 Queens Road, Reading, RG1 4BS, England.

 
 

Davies B, Davies BJ (2008). Strategic leadership. The Essentials of School Leadership.
Crossref

 
 

Davies BJ, Davies B (2004). The nature of strategic leadership. School Leadership and Management 4(1):29-38.
Crossref

 
 

Dess GG, Miller A (1993). Strategic Management. (Int'l ed.). McGraw Hill, Singapore.

 
 

DuBrin AJ (1998). Leadership research finding: Practice and skills. Mifflin Company, Boston.

 
 

Dubrins AJ (2006). Leadership: 2nd Asia-Pacific Edition. Hoghton Mufflin Company, Boston.

 
 

Esfahani1 AN, Elahi AA (2012). Administrative Organizations Strategic Control Model. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 3(3):525-536.

 
 

Gill R (2006). Theory and practice of leadership. Sage Publications Ltd., Thousand Oaks.

 
 

Hinterhuber HH, Friedrich SA (2002). The technology dimension of strategic leadership: The leadership challenge for production economists. International Journal of Production Economics 77 (3):191-203.
Crossref

 
 

Hitt H (2007). Strategic Management-Competitiveness and Globalization (Cases)-7th (Seven) Ed. South-Western College Pub, Nashville.

 
 

Hitt H (2010). Strategic leadership for the 21 century, Business Horizons 53(5):437-444.
Crossref

 
 

Hitt MA (1998). Twenty-first-century organizations: Business firms, business schools, and the academy. Academy of Management Review 23(2):218-224.
Crossref

 
 

Hitt MA, Haynes KT, Roy S (2010). Strategic leadership for the 21st century. 2010 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University.
Crossref

 
 

Hitt MA, Ireland, DR, Hoskisson R (1999). Concepts and Case Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. 3rd Ed. West Publishing, Minnesota.

 
 

Hitt MA, Ireland, DR, Hoskisson RE (2007). Strategic Management Competitiveness and Globalization concepts and cases. 7th Ed. Thomson South-Western: The University of West Alabama.

 
 

Hunt JG, Osborn RN (2000). Organizational behavior. John Wiley & Sons. New York.

 
 

Ireland RD, Hitt MA (1999). Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership. Academy of Management Executive 13(1):43-57.
Crossref

 
 

Ireland RD, Hitt MA (2005). Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership. Academy of Management Executive 19(4):63-75.
Crossref

 
 

Jaoua F, Radouche T (2014). The Moderating Role of Leader Skills on the Relationship between Strategic Management and Global Performance: An Empirical Study. International Business Research 7(8):59-72. 
Crossref

 
 

Jyoti J, Sharma J (2011). Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India. Annals of Innovation and Entrepreneurship 2(1):1-13. 
Crossref

 
 

Kopmann J, Kock A, Killen CP, Gemünden HG (2016). The role of project portfolio management in fostering both deliberate and emergent strategy. International Journal of Project Management 35(4):557-570. 
Crossref

 
 

Meador KJ (2013). Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 12(3):244-52. 
Crossref

 
 

Nair A, Jayaram J, Das A (2010). Aligning Environmental Dynamism, Purchasing Strategy Formulation, Implementation and Performance: An Empirical Investigation. 2010 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Montréal, Canada.

 
 

Naserinajafabady R, Rangriz H, Mehrabi J (2013). Effects of organizational culture, structure and strategy on organizational effectiveness by using knowledge management Case Study: Seven International Transportation Company. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 7(6):355-361.

 
 

National Education Commission, Office (1999). National Education Act B.E. 2542 (1999). Prigwan Graphics, Bangkok.

 
 

Nahavandi A, Malekzadeh AR (2000). The art and science of leadership. Prentice Hall, New Jersy. 

 
 

Nahavandi, A., Malekzadeh, AR. (1993). Organizational culture in the management of mergers. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

 
 

Nahavandi A, Malekzadeh AR (2000). Organizational behavior: the person-organization fit. N.J. Prentice Hall, Jersey. 

View

 
 

Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment (Public Organization) (2016). Third external quality assessment results (2011-2015). Copied.

 
 

Office of Basic of Education Commission of Thailand OBEC (2015). The announcement of best practice awards 2015. Copied. 

View

 
 

Omran A, Yaacob Z, Abas Z (2009). The relationship between quality management, strategic control systems and financial performance of Malaysia local government. Annals Economic and Administrative Series, Faculty of Business and Administration, University of Bucharest 3(1):23-40.

 
 

Pinyopasakul P (2009). Strategic planning towards successful performance management. SE-ED, Bangkok.

 
 

Robbins SP, Coulter M (2003). Management. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall, International. Inc , New Jersey.

 
 

Said I, Omran A, Zulnaidi Y, Abas Z (2009). The relationship between quality management, strategic control systems and financial performance of Malaysia Local Government. Annals of University of Bucharest Economics and Administrative Series 3:23-40.

 
 

Sarrattana W (2014). Leadership, theories and contemporary perspectives. 1st Ed. Tippayawisut Ltd, Bangkok.

 
 

Schermerhorn JR (1999). Management. 6th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

 
 

Schermerhorn JR, Hunt JG, Osborn RN (2000). Organizational behavior. John Wiley, New York.

 
 

Sorooshian S, Norzima Z, Yusuf I. Rosnah Y (2010). Effect analysis on strategy implementation drivers. World Applied Sciences Journal 11(10):1255-1261.

 
 

Tan FB (1994). Beyond industry policy to information society: Framework for government involvement in IT policy Khosrowpour, M. (Ed). Managing Social and Economic Change with Information Technology, Idea group Publishing, Harrisburg.

 
 

Tang J, Pee LG, Iijima J (2013). Investigating the effects of business process orientation on organizational innovation performance. Information and Management 50(8):650 -660.
Crossref

 
 

Thompson A, Strickland AJ. (1995). Strategic Management concept and cases, 8th Ed. Business, New York.

 
 

Wheelen TL Hunger JD (2012a). Strategic Management and Business Policy. 11th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

 
 

Wheelen TL, Hunger DJ (2012b). Strategic Management and Business

 
 

Policy: Toward Global Sustainability. 13th Ed. Prentice Hall, London.

 
 

Yaacob Z (2012). Control Systems for Quality Management. Retrieved March 2012, from 

View.
Crossref

 
 

Zheng W, Yang B, McLean G (2010). Linking Organizational Culture, Structure, Strategy, and Organizational Effectiveness: Mediating Role of Knowledge Management. Journal of Business Research 63:763-771
Crossref

 

 




          */?>