This study is aimed at characterizing scavenging and intensive chicken production system in Lume district of East Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Random samplings were employed to select sample kebeles and purposively select respondents based on numbers of chicken population in scavenging and production system (intensive) to identify the specific challenges affecting chicken production. Questionnaires were administered on three kebeles and 90 respondents’ from scavenging chicken keepers, and 10 intensive farms were interviewed. The respondents’ were stratified into 1st, 2nd and 3rd strata having 1-10, 11-20 or 21-49 chicken, respectively. Chicken houses were constructed with material stone wall and grass roof (40%). From the total respondents, those not cleaning the chicken house were 45.6%. Also, while mother took charge of sharing and offering feed for chicken, selling egg and chicken at 53 68, and 50%, respectively; and father is largely responsible for shelter constriction (17%); both mother and father participated nearly equally (29 and 28%) in purchasing drug for chicken. All respondents provided supplementary feed and water for their chicken with majority (63%) of feed supplemented being maize. Moreover, it was observed that feed supplementation can only improve egg production and growth (26.7%) in summer (July - September) session if supplemented most often (78.9%). Average egg productions per year were 76.4±3.4 whereas average age of cockerel at first mating and pullet first egg laying were 24.4±7.3 and 24.2±4.0, respectively. When the number of scavenging chicken in the household is increased, ownership pattern of males also increase. From the interviewed intensive farm, 50% joined in broiler and layer production system. There were so many opportunities available for intensive production; however, these were challenged by different factors in the study area. Overcoming the constraints of intensive production like high price of feed, poor quality and lack of sustainable market, as well as increased numbers of improved chicken per household with the minimum of 3rd strata will be able to ensure sustainable protein food source. Further research is necessary on how to increase number of chicken per households under scavenging production system.
Key words: Intensive, scavenging, production system, strata.
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