International Journal of
Nutrition and Metabolism

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nutr. Metab.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2332
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNAM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 124

Full Length Research Paper

Dietary diversity, micronutrient intake and their variation among black women in informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study

Hedwig Acham
  • Hedwig Acham
  • Department of Science, Technology and Vocational Education (DSTVE), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron
  • Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron
  • Centre of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Abdulkadir A. Egal
  • Abdulkadir A. Egal
  • Centre of Sustainable Livelihoods, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Accepted: 25 November 2011
  •  Published: 28 February 2012

Abstract

This study assessed dietary diversity, its relation to micronutrient intake and variability between age-groups among women 19–69 years from informal settlements of Gauteng province, South Africa. The study was cross-sectional, involving 260 women. Dietary intake was obtained from 24-hour recall data, and Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) from Food Frequency Questionnaire, calculated based on 9 food groups and 80 foods. Intake of eleven micronutrients was assessed as Nutrient Adequacy Ratios (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratios (MAR), using Estimated Average Requirements and Adequate Intakes of these micronutrients, following Institute of Medicine recommendations. On average, 26 foods and 7 food groups were consumed. There was a strong significantly positive relationship (p<0.001) between the NAR of respective micronutrients (as well as MAR) with the DDS, the relationship was negative with food variety and diversity within food groups; except for vitamin C. Age-group comparisons revealed the older age groups (36-years and older) being at-risk of low micronutrient intake; particularly in calcium, vitamins C and A. In conclusion, dietary diversity was above reference, there was a strong relationship between DDS and micronutrient intake, and there is a significant variation in intake between age-groups, with women 36-years and older being more at-risk of low micronutrient intake.

 

Key words: Dietary diversity, informal settlements, micronutrients, nutrient adequacy, nutrition education.