International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 213

Full Length Research Paper

Four hidden matriarchs of psychoanalysis: The relationship of Lou von Salome, Karen Horney, Sabina Spielrein and Anna Freud to Sigmund Freud

Jerry Aldridge
  • Jerry Aldridge
  • University of Alabama Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • Google Scholar
Jennifer L. Kilgo
  • Jennifer L. Kilgo
  • University of Alabama Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • Google Scholar
Grace Jepkemboi
  • Grace Jepkemboi
  • University of Alabama Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 21 February 2014
  •  Accepted: 24 March 2014
  •  Published: 30 April 2014

Abstract

Sigmund Freud is considered the father and founder of psychoanalysis; however, numerous women contributed to its development and practice. Lou von Salome, Karen Horney, Sabina Spielrein and Anna Freud were instrumental in forming one of the leading psychological theories of the 20th century. Although the implications of each woman’s work are different, they individually made a unique impact on the development and practice of psychoanalysis in specific ways. Lou von Salome contributed much to the development of psychoanalysis through the arts, as she was a prolific writer and novelist. Karen Horney eventually broke with Freud and developed her own version of psychoanalysis, incorporating feminine psychology and criticizing the phallocentric and patriarchal nature of Freud’s theories. Sabina Spielrein contributed the “death instinct” to psychoanalysis, although Freud did not credit her fully for this development. Anna Freud, the youngest child of Sigmund and Martha Freud, was the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology along with Melanie Klein. She focused on the ego in childhood and ways to encourage its healthy development. Although each matriarch of psychoanalysis extended the ideas and theories of Sigmund Freud, they have not been given the credit they deserved.
 
Keywords: Psychoanalysis, women, history, mothers.