International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 220


A historical perspective of the field of emotional and behavioral disorders: A review of literature

Celestial Wills-Jackson
  • Celestial Wills-Jackson
  • Lehman College, 250 Bedford Park Blvd. West, Bronx, NY 10468, United States.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 16 July 2017
  •  Accepted: 30 September 2019
  •  Published: 31 October 2019


The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, to review relevant literature forming the foundation of the field of emotional and behavioral disorders. This historical methodology focuses on examining research from the 1700s to 2017, starting with the history of emotional disorders, the Freudian theory, the federal special education laws that emerged throughout history, and lastly tracing its evolution within the scholarship of special education. Second, is to place this research in a historical context to show familiarity with meaningful inclusive education practices and to identify the likely directions for future research. Research inclusion criteria were primary and secondary sources of authored books, published articles, and research reports issued from the 1700s to 2017. 


Key words: Emotional disturbance (ED), emotional behavioral disorders (EBD), special education, inclusive education.