International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 220


Human dimension of the 1999 Marmara earthquakes in Turkey: Traumatic menthal health effects and consequences

Bulut Sefa
  • Bulut Sefa
  • Department of Counseling and Guidance Psychology, School of Educational Sciences, Ibn Haldun University, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 29 December 2020
  •  Accepted: 23 April 2021
  •  Published: 31 May 2021


By definition, disasters are natural phenomena that occur unexpectedly. Moreover, throughout the ages, human communities have experienced numerous disasters and the expectation is that there will be as many more in the coming years. On a daily basis, there are reports of earthquakes, hurricanes, and flood disaster news on TVs, radios, and other news media. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of natural disasters on individuals as well as on community-based institutions. For these reasons, in particular, the purpose of this study is to explore, understand and analyze the notorious 1999 Marmara Earthquake on people’s daily lives and social institutions. It is expected that peoples and countries within the earthquake zone can learn lessons from this Turkish Earthquake and draw some conclusions for the sake of their people’s mental health as well as help protect their social institutions in the event of such hard times.


Key words: Human dimensions of Earthquakes, Marmara earthquakes, social institutions after earthquakes, search and rescue efforts after earthquakes, natural disasters.