This study was carried out in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria to explore strategies of enhancing pastoralists’ access to natural resources to attained sustainable livelihoods. The primary sources of data used includes key informant interview, FGD, Oral histories, Geo coded transect walk and Administration of interview scheduled. A total number of 275 farming, agro-pastoral and pastoral household heads (94 farmers, 90 agro-pastoralists and 91 pastoralists) were interviewed. The study reveals that ensuring access to natural resource for survival of livelihood is primary cause of conflicts among and between natural resource users. Among the classes of conflicts, farmers – pastoralists’ conflict is perhaps dominant with unprecedented levels of violence. Data from this study reveals lack of consensus between resource users on causes of conflicts and this posed a major threat to conflict management. The study recommends the need for shifting paradigm from conflict resolution to conflict prevention strategy, building and developing the capacity of pastoralist and, giving livelihood support to conflict affected pastoralists.
Keywords: Access, Potential Conflicts, Active Conflicts, Herders, Farmers