International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 347


Groundwater pollution and climate change vulnerability in Kenya: A review

Innocent Osoro Ngare
  • Innocent Osoro Ngare
  • Food and Agriculture Organization, South Sudan.
  • Google Scholar
James Karanja
  • James Karanja
  • Department of Environmental Studies and Community Development, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University.
  • Google Scholar
Susan Maina
  • Susan Maina
  • Department of Environmental Sciences and Education, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Salome Gikonyo
  • Salome Gikonyo
  • Department of Geography, School of Sustainability, Kiel University, Germany.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 26 May 2024
  •  Accepted: 21 June 2024
  •  Published: 30 June 2024


Groundwater is a significant water source for agriculture, industry, and domestic use. In Kenya, pollution and unprecedented climate change vulnerability threaten the sustainability of groundwater sources. Climate change has intensified frequent droughts, leading to water shortages and access to clean water. This research study review identifies the causes of groundwater pollution and distribution of surface water and boreholes in relation to climate change vulnerability in Kenya. It also elucidates projections and the effect of climate change vulnerabilities on aquifers. The findings show that the gradual, steady increase in groundwater pollution results from the continued use of various uncoordinated legal and policy frameworks that have yet to do much to address groundwater resource management in Kenya. This research paper recommends the creation and implementation of strong institutions with clearly defined legislation and policies governing groundwater, integration, and cooperation of groundwater resources with surface water and all key stakeholders, as well as the creation of awareness to enhance understanding of the dangers of groundwater mismanagement and its importance in climate change adaptation.

Key words: Climate change, aquifers and boreholes, groundwater, pollution and contamination, ground water vulnerability assessment.