Journal of
Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Biotech. Sustain. Dev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2340
  • DOI: 10.5897/JABSD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 139

Full Length Research Paper

Genetic variation in nitrogen efficiency among cultivars of irrigated rice in Senegal

Tala Gueye1* and Heiko Becker2
  1University of Thies, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Agriculture (ENSA), BP: A296, Thies, Senegal. ²Georg August University Gottingen, Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Von-Siebold-Strasse 8, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 20 January 2011
  •  Published: 31 March 2011

Abstract

 

Due to increasing fertiliser costs as well as environmental concerns, N-efficiency became an attractive breeding topic. Genotypes can be considered as N-efficient if they realise an above average yield at low N level or if they convert high N input comparatively better into yield than other genotypes. To evaluate potential of Oryza sativa L. in nitrogen use efficiency compared to Oryza glaberrima Steudt., a two years field experiment was conducted. Twelve O. sativa genotypes were tested in a split-plot design with two N-levels (without N fertiliser and with 150 kg N/ha). For comparison, one genotype of African rice, O. glaberrima, was included in the experiment. Variability about grain yield at harvest and N-uptake was observed between O. sativa and O. glaberrima and within O. sativa genotypes. O. glaberrima had lower yield as O. sativa. In low N-level, a close relationship between total N-uptake in plant and grain yield was observed. In high N-level, no correlation was observed. An effect of O. glaberrima genotype on the variance component GN was demonstrated. Variation in N uptake and in N utilisation efficiency depends on N fertilisation. At low N level variation in N uptake were higher than at high N level. At the opposite, variations in utilisation efficiency were lower without fertilisation than with fertilisation. Genotypes Farox 304 and Farox 239 gave best yields at high N input as well as under low N input conditions. At low N input, variation in uptake efficiency was higher than variation in utilisation efficiency. In contrary at high N level, variation in utilisation efficiency was higher than variation in uptake efficiency. Improving N-efficient genotype through classical breeding or using biotechnology linked with innovative agronomic management could be exciting prospects to improve N use efficiency.

 

Key words: Fertiliser, environment, nitrogen, N-uptake, N-efficiency, breeding, genotypes, yield, Oryza sativa L., Oryza gaberrima Steudt.