Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 487

Full Length Research Paper

Panamá disease tropical race 4 in banana plantations in Mozambique: Disease intensity, spatial distribution and negative socio-economic impact

Eunice Paula Armando Cavane
  • Eunice Paula Armando Cavane
  • Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
  • Google Scholar
Amândio Muthambe
  • Amândio Muthambe
  • Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
  • Google Scholar
Ana Monjane
  • Ana Monjane
  • Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
  • Google Scholar
Miguel Dita
  • Miguel Dita
  • Bioversity International, Montpellier, France.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 22 September 2023
  •  Accepted: 22 January 2024
  •  Published: 29 February 2024

Abstract

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) devastated the second-largest banana plantation farm in Northern Mozambique, resulting in an 86% loss of the Cavendish Williams banana area and the layoff of 88% of the workers. This study conducted a field survey with 119 soil and 26 crop samples and administered a questionnaire in a quasi-experimental design with two samples, randomly selected, of unemployed (n1=272) and employed at the banana company (n2=79), to assess disease intensity, spatial distribution, and its socioeconomic impact on ex-employees. The results indicated the presence of F. oxysporum in the soil within the plantation farm and in its surrounding areas, and Foc in plants outside the farm. Since other studies using PCR molecular tests have confirmed the presence of TR4 in surrounding areas, it is highly likely that Foc TR4 is present in plants outside the farm, confirming its spread. Unemployment had a negative socioeconomic impact, and families experienced restrictions on economic access to nutritious foods and food preferences. An adapting and integrated disease management approach combining resistant varieties, exclusion, biosecurity, and soil management for increasing banana production and stimulating labor demand through re-hiring the ex-employees could be considered to improve disease management and ex-employees’ incomes.

Key words: Musa spp, Panamá disease, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, socio-economic impact.