Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 475

Full Length Research Paper

On the Challenges Faced by Female Members of Agricultural Cooperatives in Southeast Nigeria

Chukwujekwu A. Obianefo
  • Chukwujekwu A. Obianefo
  • IFAD Assisted Value Chain Development Programme, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ogonna O. Osuafor
  • Ogonna O. Osuafor
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
John N. Ng’ombe
  • John N. Ng’ombe
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 15 February 2021
  •  Accepted: 27 April 2021
  •  Published: 31 May 2021


This study uses structural equation modelling (SEM) and path diagram techniques to examine challenges faced by women in the agricultural sector cooperatives in Southeast Nigeria. The data are from a cross-section survey of randomly selected women cooperative members. Results suggest that women with poor economic status are less likely to have access to improved technology, labour, off-farm employment, and improved infrastructure. The authors also found that cultural factors increase women’s failure to own land, farm inputs, and agricultural credit. Additionally, the results show that compared to men, institutional factors increase women’s unequal access to extension training as well as their domestic workload. This study also found that older women face fewer challenges in the agricultural sector cooperatives than younger ones while more educated ones face more challenges. This study provides useful policy insights to mitigate the challenges women face in agricultural cooperatives. Most importantly, they argue that economic freedom among women in cooperatives may not be achieved unless they are emancipated from existing cultural, economic, institutional, and management constraints.

Key words: confirmatory factor analysis, path diagram, structural equation model, Nigeria