Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 415

Full Length Research Paper

Trends in livelihoods options over a five year period: A case of Murewa smallholder farmers

Tamburirio Tecla Pasipangodya
  • Tamburirio Tecla Pasipangodya
  • Department of Meteorological Services, Cnr Bishop Gaul Ave and Hudson Road, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe.
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Dorah Mwenye
  • Dorah Mwenye
  • Department of Research and Specialist Services, 5th Street Extension, Box CY594, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 18 December 2018
  •  Accepted: 19 February 2019
  •  Published: 31 October 2020


Inter and intra seasonal trends in livelihoods options have been reported at country and rarely at ward level in Zimbabwe. Evidence based on local level trends in livelihoods options is rare. This study thus   reviewed data on livelihoods activities based on the Agriculture Food Security Monitoring System (AFSMS) surveillance system. It was conducted by the Department of Crop and Livestock Production formerly Department of Agricultural Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX) in four wards of Murewa District over 5 seasons from 2010 to 2014. It was done to document local trends in livelihoods options over time for improved food security. The review consulted AGRITEX records, secondary data from web and other public documents. The results showed that income generating activities and livelihoods options at local ward level fluctuate within the farming season and across seasons. However, contributing factors were not ascertained in this study. Casual labour and market gardening were major sources of livelihoods in the wards under study in contrast to generalised extension reports which indicate crop production as a major livelihood option in the study district. The paper provides local level evidence on trends of livelihoods options and  argues for diversified livelihoods coping strategies and adoption of extension messages that go beyond crop and livestock production to include other non–farm (off -farm) based livelihoods options such as brick moulding, arts and crafts.

Key words: Trends in livelihoods, socio-economic, extension, income generation, food security, local level.