Land degradation is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century, which is associated with the decline in soil fertility has become a serious threat to agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Land degradation is widely recognized as reducing agricultural potential and continuing food insecurity and rural poverty. The economy of Ethiopia is mainly based on agriculture; Ethiopia has experienced massive land degradation. Land degradation is the temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of land. The common form of land degradation in Ethiopia includes desertification, soil erosion, soil fertility decline, water logging, salinization, and lowering of the water table. Causes of land degradation includes population pressure, deforestation, unsustainable agricultural practices, overgrazing, climatic shocks, limited adoption of soil conservation practices, invasive alien species, fires, mining, and poverty. Implementation of BMP such as agronomy measures, organic fertilizers, agroforestry practices, minimum soil disturbance, area closure, water management, hillside terraces, fanya-juu terrace, soil bunds, stone bunds, afforestation, and reforestations are important mitigation measures of land degradation. Implementation of multi-lateral environmental agreements for zero net land degradation may be used as mitigation measures of land degradation.
Keywords: Land Degradation, Best Management Practices, Multi-Lateral Environmental Agreements, Agricultural Productivity