This study analyzed rural households’ food security and its determinants in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. The study used a primary data collected from 276 randomly selected households using interview schedule. In addition, focus group discussion (FGD) and key informants interview were also used to obtain a qualitative primary data. As to the method of data analysis, the study employed descriptive statistics (such as mean, frequency, range and percentage) and binary logit model (BLM). The finding of the study revealed that, in the study area, 59.06% of the sampled households were food insecure and 40.94% of them were food secure. Besides, the study indicated that 86.87% of the households were vulnerable to different shocks, risks and seasonality’s and 41.67% of the households faced shortage of food. Moreover, the finding indicated that only 31.88% of the households were food self-sufficient from own production. Low productivity, climate related problems and inadequacy of cultivable land were identified as the top three main causes of food shortage and/or food self-insufficiency from own production. The estimated BLM pointed out that sex, age, access to irrigation, off-farm and non-farm income, input cost, access to credit and distance to market were significant in determining household’s food security status. Therefore, policies and actions directed towards improving households’ food security and reducing their vulnerability should focus on the aforementioned factors.
Keywords: Food security, Vulnerability, Binary logit model, Assosa Zone, Ethiopia