Journal of
AIDS and HIV Research

  • Abbreviation: J. AIDS HIV Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2359
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAHR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 271

Full Length Research Paper

Mode of transmission of HIV infection among orphans and vulnerable children in some selected States in Nigeria

Bamgboye E. A.
  • Bamgboye E. A.
  • Association for Reproductive and Family Health, -LOPIN 1 Project, Plot 815A Ibadan Army Officers Mess Road, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Gado P.
  • Gado P.
  • United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Plot 1075, Diplomatic Drive, Central Business District, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Olusanmi I. M.
  • Olusanmi I. M.
  • Association for Reproductive and Family Health, -LOPIN 1 Project, Plot 815A Ibadan Army Officers Mess Road, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Magaji D.
  • Magaji D.
  • United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Plot 1075, Diplomatic Drive, Central Business District, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Atobatele A
  • Atobatele A
  • United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Plot 1075, Diplomatic Drive, Central Business District, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Iwuala F.
  • Iwuala F.
  • Association for Reproductive and Family Health, -LOPIN 1 Project, Plot 815A Ibadan Army Officers Mess Road, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ladipo O. A.
  • Ladipo O. A.
  • Association for Reproductive and Family Health, -LOPIN 1 Project, Plot 815A Ibadan Army Officers Mess Road, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 06 May 2019
  •  Accepted: 15 July 2019
  •  Published: 30 September 2019

Abstract

Nigeria has high rate of pediatric HIV but there is a dearth of empirical data on the mode of HIV transmission. Association for Reproductive and Family Health (ARFH), with the support of USAID, is implementing a project to mitigate the impact of HIV on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) affected/infected with HIV/AIDS in Akwa-Ibom, Lagos, and Rivers states, Nigeria. The mode of HIV transmission among their OVC was examined. A retrospective study of enrolled OVC was done in the three states. HIV OVC whose mothers are HIV positive were classified under those who got HIV through vertical transmission, otherwise horizontal. The data was summarized using descriptive statistics.  Significance of association between qualitative variables and mode of transmission was determined using Chi-square test. Among the 387 OVC HIV positives who enrolled, there was a slight preponderance of males (50.6%); and about 42% were aged 10 - 17 years and 26% <5 years. Vertical mode of HIV transmission was higher (77%) in children <10 years. Horizontal transmission was highest among Akwa-ibom adolescents. In addition, age and State were significantly associated with transmission mode. A high proportion of children <10 years were infected through vertical transmission; while majority of adolescents are infected through horizontal transmission. Hence, a Swift scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services is recommended. Pregnant women infected with HIV need close monitoring to receive counseling as well as to get ARV prophylaxis. Also, condom demonstration should be introduced into the OVC project

Key words: Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC), HIV, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), vertical, horizontal, transmission.