This study was aimed to describe the demographic, presentation, clinical manifestation, and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive females in Saudi Arabia. Special attention was drawn to the outcome of HIV positive pregnant females. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate HIV positive patients who presented to the emergency room and out-patient department in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) between 1st of January, 2001 and 30th of December, 2010. Data wre collected from the medical records of the medical ward, outpatient clinic and discharge summary registry. The data included: age, chief complaint, investigation results upon admission, progress of the disease and whether the partner was informed and/or screened. A total number of 195 HIV patients were included in the study. The majority presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Out of the 195 patients, 10 were pregnant, of which 3 patients died soon after admission, 6 presented with serious complications and only 1 patient was diagnosed early and received optimum treatment resulting in an HIV negative baby. Fetal outcome consisted of 7 living newborns; of these, 6 were HIV-positive (85.7%), of which 2 were breastfed (33.3%). The true prevalence of HIV remains unknown especially in the Middle East. Limited testing for patients at high risk of HIV often results in many missed cases particularly in pregnancy, where early detection and treatment could give the baby a chance of an HIV free life, which is the ultimate goal.
Key words: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), pregnancy, fetal outcome.
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