Journal of
AIDS and HIV Research

  • Abbreviation: J. AIDS HIV Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2359
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAHR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 283

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of urine specimen as an alternative to blood for malaria diagnosis among HIV positive individuals attending HIV clinics in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria

Nwuzo, A. C.
  • Nwuzo, A. C.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Iroha I. R.
  • Iroha I. R.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Okonkwo, E. C.
  • Okonkwo, E. C.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Ilang, D. C.
  • Ilang, D. C.
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University Ndufu Aliki Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Agah, V. M.
  • Agah, V. M.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Afiukwa, F. N.
  • Afiukwa, F. N.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Uhuo, A. C.*
  • Uhuo, A. C.*
  • Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Ogbu, O.
  • Ogbu, O.
  • Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 05 April 2014
  •  Accepted: 16 June 2014
  •  Published: 30 June 2014

Abstract

A total of 150 blood and urine samples each were collected from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients who visited selected hospitals in Ebonyi State. The subjects were made up of 57 males and 93 female patients. The blood samples were screened for the presence of four human malaria parasites using parasitological examination of blood stained films and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 150 urine samples from the HIV positive individuals, 88 urine specimens were identified to harbor Plasmodium species. 75 (50%) urine specimens were identified to harbor Plasmodium falciparum while 10 (6.67%) and 3 (2%) were recorded against Plasmodium malariae and dual infection of P. falciparum and P. malariae, respectively. The result of the comparison of the specimens used showed the same result. None of the isolates that were negative by PCR test using DNA primers (template) from blood gave positive results by urine samples. Furthermore, when the primers (rOVA1 and rOVA2 ; rV1V1 and rV1V2) specific for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax, respectively were used, none of the two species mentioned were detected in both urine and blood samples, signifying that these species may be absent in our environment. Our study demonstrated highly, the presence of P. falciparum and P. malariae, especially when specific Plasmodium species DNA markers were used for the analysis.

 

Key words: Urine, Plasmodium species, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microscopy.