Journal of
AIDS and HIV Research

  • Abbreviation: J. AIDS HIV Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2359
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAHR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 297

Article in Press

Prevalence and factors associated with kidney dysfunction among people living with HIV/AIDS in northern Tanzania: Retrospective cross-Sectional study

Jacob Henry Kitundu, Kassim Bakari, Japhary Joseph, Kajiru Kilonzo, Orgeness Mbwambo

  •  Received: 30 January 2024
  •  Accepted: 16 April 2024
People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk for diseases affecting the kidney, including HIV-Associated Nephropathy (HIVAN), non-collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, immune-complex kidney disease, and comorbid kidney disease, in addition to kidney injury following long term use of Highly Active-antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) or from opportunistic infections medications. In this population, kidney dysfunction is now an increasingly recognized non-AIDS defining condition, and contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality of PLHIV. The role of HIV-related factors in kidney dysfunction still remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with kidney dysfunction among people living with HIV attending Care and Treatment Clinics (CTC) at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania. A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Northern-Tanzania. Clinical records of PLHIV were examined from October 2022 to April 2023. Participants included PLHIV on HAART for above 6 months. Serum creatinine was used to estimate eGFR using the 2021 CKD-EPI equation without considering race. Data were analyzed using STATA 14. Multivariate analysis conducted and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Among the 331 PLHIV on ART who met the inclusion criteria, 40 individuals (12.1%) had impaired kidney function, as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2. 32 had an eGFR of 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2, 2 had an eGFR of 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 6 had an eGFR of < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Anaemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-8.42) and femininity (AOR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.42-8.19) were found to be independent predictors of renal function impairment among PLHIV. In Northen Tanzania approximately one tenth of patient on HAART had renal function impairment and half of them were anaemic. Anaemia and being a woman were associated with impaired kidney function. In individuals living with HIV on HAART, routine screenings are recommended for the early detection and treatment of anemia and renal function impairment.

Keywords: Kidney dysfunction, renal impairment, HIV positive, people living with HIV, HAART, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre.