Journal of
African Studies and Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Afr. Stud. Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2189
  • DOI: 10.5897/JASD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 218

Full Length Research Paper

Survival strategies and livelihood diversification of Ileje Migrants in Mbozi District, Southern Tanzania

Christopher, A. Mulungu
  • Christopher, A. Mulungu
  • Department of History, Political science and Development studies, Mkwawa University College of Education, P.O. Box 2512, Iringa, Tanzania.
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Helena, E. Myeya
  • Helena, E. Myeya
  • Department of Geography, Mkwawa University College of Education, P. O. Box 2512, Iringa, Tanzania.
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  •  Received: 10 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 27 March 2018
  •  Published: 31 May 2018


This paper attempts to examine survival strategies and livelihood diversification of migrants in Mbozi district, southern Tanzania. A total of 551 heads of households were involved in this study. The study used both quantitative and qualitative techniques in collecting and analysing data where household questionnaire, in-depth interviews, field observations, focus group discussions and documentary review were used as data gathering techniques. Descriptive statistics and content analysis have been used as data analysis methods. The study results indicate that, Ileje migrants adopted a number of survival strategies such as intensification of non-traditional cash crops such as maize, rice, millet and bananas, out-migration, establishment of petty businesses in major trading centres and involvement in casual labour. The study concludes that the adopted survival strategies were seen to be useful in improving the livelihoods of migrants in the place of destination. However, none of the strategy deemed to be sustainable; rather migrants used them interchangeably. It is recommended to provide support, particularly existence of reliable markets for agricultural products, provision of loans with low interest rates and provision of training on business skills in order to help them strengthen their small business and agriculture that seems to act as their major survival strategy.
Key words: Survival strategy, livelihood diversification, migrants, Ileje, Mbozi, Tanzania.