Journal of
African Studies and Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Afr. Stud. Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2189
  • DOI: 10.5897/JASD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 173


Killing Ebola: The militarization of US aid in Liberia

Drew Alexander Calcagno
  • Drew Alexander Calcagno
  • School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London, London WCH1 0XG, United Kingdom.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 06 September 2016
  •  Accepted: 11 October 2016
  •  Published: 31 October 2016


Albrecht P, Jackson P (2014). Securing Sierra Leone: Introduction. Whitehall Papers. 82(1):1-18.


Arie S (2014, October 10). Only the military can get the Ebola epidemic under control: MSF head. BMJ. 1-3.


Barclay J (2016, June 13). In-person interview with an Ebola Treatment Unit worker. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia.


Chamberlain J (2016, June 15). In-person interview with the US Embassy Political Officer. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia.


Chan M (2014). WHO Director-General's speech to the Regional Committee for the Western Pacific. Manila: World Health Organization.


Cheng-zhong L (2015). Thinking After Fighting Against the 2014 Ebola Epidemic in Liberia. Chin. Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. University. 36(6):581-583.


Christie R (2012, February). The Pacification of Soldiering, and the Militarization of Development: Contradictions Inherent in Provincial Reconstruction in Afghanistan. Globalizations. 9(1):53-71.


Ciment J (2013). Another America: The Story of Liberia and the Former Slaves Who Ruled It. New York: Hill and Wang.


Collier P, Hoeffler A (2002). Aid, Policy, and Peace: Reducing the Risks of Civil Conflict. Defence and Peace Economics. 13(6): 435-450.


Collier P, Hoeffler A (2004). Aid, Policy and Growth in Post-Conflict Societies. Eur. Econ. Rev. 48:1125-1145.


Cook P (2016). Statement by Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook on U.S. Airstrike in Somalia. Retrieved August 6, 2016, from U.S. Department of Defense, June 1.


Cooper H, Shear M, Grady D (2014, September 15). U.S. to Commit Up to 3,000 Troops to Fight Ebola in Africa. New York Times. pp. 1-4.


Cronk TM (2014, September 12). DOD to Send 25-bed Hospital to Liberia in Fight Against Ebola Virus. Retrieved July 19, 2016, from U.S. Department of Defense.


Denney L (2011). Reducing Poverty with Teargas and Batons: The Security Development Nexus in Sierra Leone, February 18. Afr. Aff. 110(439):275-294.


Diehl P, Druckman D, Wall J (1998). International Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution. J. Confl. Resolut. 42(1):34.


DoD (2015). DoD Helps Fight Ebola in Liberia and West Africa. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from U.S. Department of Defense.


Dube O, Naidu S (2014). Bases, Bullets and Ballots: the Effect of U.S. Military Aid on Political Conflict in Colombia. Cambridge, Mass: Nat. Bur. Econ. Res.


Duffield M (2001). Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security. London: Zed.


Duffield M (2007). Development, Security, and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge: Polity Press.


Fetherston A (2000). Peacekeeping, conflict resolution and peacebuilding: A reconsideration of theoretical frameworks. Int. Peacekeeping. 7(1):190-218.


Gaye L, Hector H (2014, December 3). Healthcare workers on the frontline of Ebola: Louise's story. One. 1-2.


George J (2016, June 16). In-person interview with the Chief Medical Officer of the Armed Forces of Liberia. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia.


Gibson A (2013, August 2). Seabees recognized for efforts across HOA. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa.


Haenlein C, Godwin A (2015). Containing Ebola: A Test for Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone. Stability: Int. J. Secur. Dev. 4(1):38.


Hansen M (2014, November 12). Lawmakers question Obama's $6-billion request for Ebola funding. Los Angeles Times. 1-3.


Hernandez H (2016, June 23). In-person interview with the head of US Embassy security for over 20 years. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia.


Hewitt K (2016). Disaster Risk Reduction in the Era of "Homeland Security": The Struggle for Precautionary, Preventive, and Non-violent Approaches. In K. Sudmeier-Rieux, M. Fernández, I. Penna, M. Jaboyedoff, & J. Gaillard, Identifying Emerging Issues in Disaster Risk Reduction, Migration, Climate Change and Sustainable Development: 35-51. Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer.


Interview (2016, July 8). In-person interview with Liberian living in Congo Town. Monrovia, Liberia.


Jennings K (2007). The Struggle to Satisfy: DDR Through the Eyes of Ex-combatants in Liberia. Int. Peacekeeping. 14(2): 204-218.


Kim Y, Nunnenkamp P (2013). Does It Pay for US-based NGOs to Go to War? Empirical Evidence for Afghanistan and Iraq. Kiel, Germany: Kiel Institute for the World Economy.


Kollie M (2016, June 26). Letter To Malia And Sasha Obama – Weeping Voices In Dying Valleys. Daily Observer. 1-4.


Krahenbuhl P. (2011, February 22). The militarization of aid and its perils. ICRC. 1-2.


Kulish N, Schmitt E (2013, October 8). 'Imperfect Intelligence' Said to Hinder U.S. Raid on Militant in Somalia. The New York Times. 1-5.


Lane J, McNair S (2015). Sending Soldiers to Fight Ebola. Military Medicine. 180(6): 607-608.


Leach M (2015). The Ebola Crisis and Post-2015 Development. J. Intl. Dev. 27: 816-834.


Miles D (2012, June 26). Signs of Military Professionalism, Cooperation On Rise in Africa. Retrieved July 23, 2016, from U.S. Department of


Miller M (2016, June 15). In-person interview with US military officer. (D.


Mitchell D (2015). Blurred Lines? Provincial Reconstruction Teams and NGO Insecurity in Afghanistan, 2010–2011. Stability: Intl J. Security Dev. 4(1): Art. 9.


Mitchell T (2016). Phone interview with the US Senior Defense Official in Liberia during the Ebola outbreak, June 22. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer).


Parham R, Wanjue C (2016). In-person interview with representatives of the Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia, June 15.


Paskman S (2016). In-person interview with the acting US Ambassador to Liberia. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia, June 15.


PBS (2002). Liberia: America's Stepchild [Motion Picture].


Phillip A (2014). Eight dead in attack on Ebola team in Guinea. 'Killed in cold blood.' , September 18. The Washington Post. 1-2.


Potter S (2016, June 23). Phone interview with the Officer in Charge of the US Operation Onward Liberty in Liberia during the Ebola outbreak. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer).


Rankin D (2015). Michigan National Guard continues mentor-mission to Liberian armed forces. Retrieved July 9, 2016, from Michigan National Guard.


Selbach-Allen M (2016). Phone interview with a US Marine Officer serving in Liberia during the height of the Ebola outbreak. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) June 09.


Selbach-Allen M (2016b). Follow-Up Interview Correspondence with US Marine Corps Officer Serving in Liberia During the Height of the Ebola Crisis. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) , July 19.


Simeone N (2015). U.S. Conducts Counterterrorism Operation in Somalia. Retrieved August 6, 2016, from U.S. Department of Defense March 13.


Soyombo F (2016). The plunder of West Africa Ebola funds. Al Jazeera. 1-14.


Spearie S (2016). Nurse helped in fight against Ebola. The State Journal-Register, July 3, January 29. 1-4.


Stack J, Brabazon J (2004). Liberia: An Uncivil War [Motion Picture]. United States of America.


UNMIL Official 1 (2016). In-person interview with an UNMIL official. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia, July 8.


UNMIL Official 2 (2016). In-person interview with an UNMIL official. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia, July 8.


USAID (2016). Ebola: Get the Facts - The United States has done more than any other country to help West Africa respond to the Ebola crisis. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from United States Agency for International Development.


USAID (2016b). USAID/OFDA Support for Liberia's Ebola Response. Washington, D.C.: US Agency for International Development.


Vrey W (2016, July 8). In-person interview with the UNMIL Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General for Rule of Law. (D. Calcagno, Interviewer) Monrovia, Liberia.


Waugh C (2011). Charles Taylor and Liberia: Ambition and Atrocity in Africa's Lone Star State. London: Zed.


Weissman F (2004). Military Humanitarianism: A Deadly Confusion. Paris: Médecins Sans Frontières.


White D (2014, September 30). Seabees from Task Force 68 to support Ebola Outbreak Response. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa.


WHO (2014). Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Media Centre. Geneva: World Health Organization.


WHO (2016). Ebola Situation Report - 17 February 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization.


WHO (2016b). Latest Ebola outbreak over in Liberia; West Africa is at zero, but new flare-ups are likely to occur. Media Centre. Monrovia: World Health Organization.