Journal of
Entomology and Nematology

  • Abbreviation: J. Entomol. Nematol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9855
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEN
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 135

Full Length Research Paper

Infestation rate of Mangifera indica fruit fly in Sudanese zone of Mali

Rahinatou, Rosalie. Assogba
  • Rahinatou, Rosalie. Assogba
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies (FST), University of Technical Sciences and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
  • Google Scholar
Bassirou Dembélé
  • Bassirou Dembélé
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies (FST), University of Technical Sciences and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
  • Google Scholar
Youssouf Faya Keita
  • Youssouf Faya Keita
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies (FST), University of Technical Sciences and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
  • Google Scholar
Bernard Sodio
  • Bernard Sodio
  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies (FST), University of Technical Sciences and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
  • Google Scholar
Amadou Coulibaly
  • Amadou Coulibaly
  • Rural Polytechnic Institute for Training and Applied Research (IPR / IFRA), Mali.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 01 July 2019
  •  Accepted: 18 November 2019
  •  Published: 31 January 2020

 ABSTRACT

Mali has a potential for mango production across the country. However, this plant is facing phytosanitary problems mainly related to fruit flies. The study was conducted to evaluate the infestation rate of fruit flies on mango varieties in Sudanese zone of Mali (Kati). Stung mangoes were weekly collected from three sites. Fruits were weighted and placed inside plastic bags containing sand to the monitor larva infestation under semi-natural conditions within of the laboratory. Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis cosyra were the two species identified from all sites with an average of 22.88 and 23.32 fruit flies, respectively. C. cosyra appreciated mango varieties such as Valencia, Amelie, Kent, Davis Haden and Keitt whilst B. dorsalis preferred Keitt, Brooks, Kent and Smith varieties. No correlation was found between mangoes weight and the number of emerged flies in addition to lack of sex predominance based on fruit’ fly species. The infestation rate varies according to the variety of mangoes.

 

Keywords: Mango, fruit fly, infestation, Sudanese zone, Mali.


 INTRODUCTION

Agrosylvopastoral sector contributes around 70% of export value providing about 80% of populations’ income (Vayssières et al., 2004). Fruit and vegetable sector play very important role in Mali socio-economic development policy (Helvetas, 2003). Among this sector, more importance has been given to mangoes either from the professional sector, government or partners for the country's development. It occupied the first position in term of fruit exportation (Helvetas, 2003).
 
Mangifera indica, [Anacardiaceae] is one of the most planted  fruit  trees  in  the  world  especially  in  Asia  and Africa, particularly in Mali (Vayssières et al., 2004). More than 49.9 million tons of mangos were produced over the world (FruiTrop, 2016). Asia, the continent of mangos origin, is the largest producer with 71% of world production followed by Africa (17%) and America (10%) (FruiTrop, 2016). Mango fruit, most consumed in Mali, is a source of vitamin C supplement and income for the rural population (Thiam et al., 2001). Mango is produced throughout Mali with a major production of this country from Sikasso, Ségou and Koulikoro regions in addition to Bamako district (Thiam et al., 2001).
 
 
In 2015, Malian mango production reached 600 000 tons and raised USD 30 million in export earnings, nearly 15 666 634 CFA francs (IFM, 2016). During the last four years, the exported amount of mango was 66 049, 67315, and 64 730 tons, respectively in 2015, 2016 and 2017 (IFM, 2016, 2017).
 
Despite this high production from Mali, the country exportation is not significant (Diallo et al., 2016; IFM, 2017). In 2018, the quantity of fresh and dried mangoes was 22 276 tons of the treatement of orchards against fruit flies (PACAM, 2018). Even though 6 522 ha (2017) and 24 800 ha (2018) had been treated (PCDA, 2005; PACAM, 2018), several containers of Malian exported mango were intercepted due to phytosanitary problems related to fruit flies (IFM, 2017). The number of mango containers intercepted at the European borders over the years include 25 in 2014, 11 in 2015, 66 in 2016, 25 in 2017 and 26 in 2018 were among of mangoes containers intercepted at the European borders (European Commission, 2018; IFM, 2017).
 
These flies belong to the family of Tephritidae, or "fruit flies", including more than 4 000 species distributed among 500 genera. It is one of the most economically important Dipterans because of the damage they may cause in crops (fruits and vegetables) and their presence in many countries. For a century, Tephritidae has been one of the most studied pests (Passion Entomology, 2014). They cause considerable economic losses for farmers (Vayssières et al., 2014). The study has been carried out on the unspecified infestation rate of mango varieties in Benin (Vayssières et al., 2010) and Togo (Gomina, 2015). In Côte d'Ivoire, three varieties of mangoes (Kent, Keitt, Amelie) were recorded and most of them were infested with Bactrocera invadens (called Bactrocera dorsalis from 2014) according to N’dépo et al. (2009). In Mali, Vayssières et al. (2004) identified three varieties of mangoes (Keitt, Kent, and Brooks) most bitten by species of the genus Ceratitis. Keita (2015) observed pupae of Ceratitis cosyra and B. dorsalis in mango varieties (Personal communication). The main objective of this study was to identify mango varieties highly susceptible to fruit fly infestation in Mali in order to establish future strategies to reduce associated yield loss.

 


 METHODOLOGY

The study sites
 
Sampling was carried out in Koulikoro region within Kati district from 3 locations: Dougourakoro (0.53 ha, 12° 64' 92' 'and 7 ° 85' 86''), Kati (1.24 ha, 12° 77 '31'' and 8° 12' 00'') and Farabana (1.17 ha, 12° 46' 64'' and 8° 11' 13'') (LET, 2017). This region is located in the Sudanese zone with an average annual rainfall of 980 mm. It is also one of the most important mango producing areas in Mali (MDR, 2002). The orchards were selected based on some criteria such as plot size (at least 0.5 hectares), age of the trees (at least 10 years old) and accessibility during seasons. At least, 4 commercial mangos’ varieties must be in the orchard and homeowners must opt for non-use of pesticides during the study period.
 
Material
 
The plant materials composed of commercial mango varieties: early varieties (Amelie), medium varieties (Kent, Davis Haden, Valencia, Smith, and Springfels) and late varieties (Keitt, Brooks). Mangoes were used to feed the larvae of fruit fly. The animal material composed of the fruit flies (Tephritidae) whilst technical equipment were containers (plastic cup), mosquito net tulle, gloves, binocular loupes, sand, vacuum cleaner, breeding cage, super weather station (I.T.Works, Model N°.: KW.9007, Kesa UK HU1 3AU, 433 MHZ), etc.
 
 
Methods
 
Collection of infested fruit samples
 
Data collection was carried out between April and August 2017. Mangoes were collected once a week at the three sites randomly. In the field, there was no consistency in terms of the number of fruits collected by varieties. The number of fruits depended on the number of mango trees per varieties, the reproductive cycle, and the maturity period (early, medium, and late). The fruits falling under the trees bearing signs of spawning were collected by variety and transported to the laboratory to follow the evolution of the infestation in semi-natural conditions (a grill shed with thermo-hygrometer).
 
Weighing and incubation of fruits
 
Fruits were weighted, placed inside plastic bags containing sand, labeled with the name of mango variety, weight in grams, date and collection site. Sand allows the larvae to steal. The mangoes were weighed before the incubation, the weights of mangoes were between 100 and 5100 g depending on the variety according to the technique of Vayssières et al. (2009) modified. The containers were closed by lids with fine mesh, sometimes closed with tulle mosquito nets fixed with elastic band in order to prevent egg-laying from certain insects or to circumscribe the loss of larvae and pupae from predatory actions. This container also avoids larvae escape, but also to keep emerged adults which will be further used for breeding and identification. Insects dead after emergence were conserved inside the tube containing 70% alcohol for their identification.
 
Species identification
 
At the laboratory, emerged flies were collected using a vacuum cleaner and kept inside the refrigerator. The identification of emerged fly species in the laboratory was done using determination keys available at the Entomology-Parasitology Laboratory at the Faculty of Science and Technique or at the Laboratory of Arthropod Biology and Integrated Struggle, Institute Rural Polytechnic Training and Applied Research (IPR/IFRA) of Katibougou. Insects’ observation was done using binocular loups. After identification, flies were counted based on species, sex and the date of emergence.
 
Data were collected from mangoes varieties based on the weight of mango and emerging adult fly. The temperatures (minimum, maximum), the relative humidity (RH %), the observation of pupae and the identification of emergence were scored every day. The software SAS (System of Statistical Analysis) was used to compute recorded data in addition to the sex difference of fruit flies; the preference of flies according to mango varieties was analyzed using R (RCRAN https: //cran.r -project.org/ Card). Excel sheet was used to establish a correlation between the weight of mangoes and the number of emerged flies.


 RESULTS

Number of fruit flies emerged at the laboratory
 
The results revealed the presence of three species: B. invadens (named B. dorsalis from 2014 onwards), C. cosyra and Ceratitis ditissima of the order Diptera and Tephritidae family (Table 1). B. dorsalis and C. cosyra were the two important species with an average of 22.88 and 23.32 flies, respectively. Moreover, there was predominance of B. dorsalis at all sites of Dougourakoro and C. cosyra in Farabana.
 
Influences of meteorological parameters (temperature and humidity) on flies’ emergence
 
For all sites and throughout the monitoring period, fly species moved in the opposite directions. On the other hand, as the temperature dropped (below 30°) in increase the humidity (greater than 70%), the population of C. cosyra decreased whilst that of B. dorsalis increased (Figure 1).
 
 
Preference of fly species in relation to mango varieties
 
Eight mango varieties were incubated at the laboratory. At Dougourakoro site, B. dorsalis preferred firstly the Keitt mango variety followed by Brooks and Kent, with a maximum of 244, 196 and 141 fruit flies, respectively. Valencia was the only variety which is not appreciated by Bactrocera dorsalis (Figure 2a). Few B. dorsalis emerged with varieties from Kati location, 26 fruit flies were scored from Amelie, 25 from Kent and 19 from Davis Haden (Figure 2b). At Farabana, Keitt variety was the most infested by B. dorsalis species (169 fruits flies) followed by Kent (69 fruits flies) and Brooks (66) (Figure 2c). Out of the five mango varieties from Dougourakoro, Smith (50 flies) and Valencia (47 flies) varieties were little appreciated by C. cosyra followed by Keitt variety. The Brooks variety did not record any emerging flies (Figure 3a). In Kati, Amélie and Kent varieties recorded the maximum C. cosyra emergence with 108 and 161 flies, respectively (Figure 3b). In Farabana, the three most appreciated varieties by C. cosyra were Valencia (147 flies),  Kent  (147  fruit  flies)  and  Amelie  (144  fruit flies)  (Figure 3c). C. ditissima was recorded only on the Valencia variety in Dougourakoro site (Figure 4).
 
 
Relationship between infestation rate and weight of mangoes
 
The lines of equation (linear regression lines) were not closed to the set of points of the cloud for each species. The numbers of the species (B. dorsalis n = 1 577), (C. cosyra n = 1754), (C. ditissima n= 5) with the respective coefficients of determination, R2 = 0.0168  for  B.  dorsalis and R2 = 0.002 for C. cosyra. Therefore, the number of flies emerged by incubation from the collected fruits do not appear to be related to the weight of the mangoes, regardless of the site, the mango varieties and the fly species (Figure 5).
 
Sex predominance of emerged fly species from all varieties of mangoes at the laboratory
 
Table 2 shows that there is not a significant difference between  the   male   and   female   numbers  of  each  fly species in general at all sites except that of C. ditissima where the average of the females is higher than that of the males which corresponded to zero.
 
 


 DISCUSSION

Number of fruit flies emerged at the laboratory
 
Results revealed no significant differences between the average of species (C. cosyra and B. dorsalis). On the other hand, some authors (N'dépo et al., 2009, 2010; N'diaye, 2009; Vayssière et al., 2010) from Ivory Coast (Azaguié, Abidjan and in the center of Yamoussoukro), Senegal (the Niayes and Thies Plateau area), and  Benin (Guinean-Sudanian areas) showed a predominance of B. dorsalis species compared to other species such as C. cosyra. According to the results reported by Ouédraogo et al. (2010) in Burkina Faso and Keita (2015) in Mali, the emergence rate of C. cosyra is significantly higher than that of B. dorsalis in mangoes.
 
Influences of meteorological parameters (temperature and humidity) on emerged flies
 
The meteorological parameters influenced the reproduction of each fly species which moved in the opposite direction with respect to temperature and humidity.  The  meteorological  parameters  taken  at  the incubation site (in the shed) of stung fruits can confirm the dynamics of fruit fly species in orchards. The early onset (in the dry season) of C. cosyra compared with B. dorsalis was consistent with the results obtained by Vayssières et al. (2009) and Tinkeu et al. (2011). The population of B. dorsalis in the rainy season was greater than that of dry season (Vayssières et al., 2009; Ouédraogo, 2011; Tinkeu et al., 2011; Konta et al., 2015; Keita et al., 2016). According to Duyck (2005), Tephritidae are generally very sensitive to environmental condition variations, particularly that of relative humidity.
 
Preference of fly species in relation to mango varieties
 
Farabana and Dougourakoro sites recorded more B. dorsalis. This is due to the high density of the Keitt and Brooks (late-maturing) varieties in orchards in addition to the appearance of species at the time of heavy rainfall (July-August). On the other hand, the Farabana and Kati sites recorded more C. cosyra due to the presence of early (Amélie) and medium (Kent, Davis Haden, Valencia) mango varieties which maturity coincide with the appearance of C. cosyra (March - mid-July). Moreover, there was difference between fly species based on mango varieties. Whatever, the site C. cosyra appreciated Valencia, Amelie, Kent, Davis Haden and Keitt varieties, whereas B. dorsalis preferred Keitt, Brooks, Kent and Smith. In Mali, the report from Vayssières et al. (2004) and Vayssières (2002) showed the preference of C. cosyra for the following mango varieties: Smith, Keitt, Amélie, Brooks and Kent.
 
The species C. cosyra was significantly important in the fruits of the first waves of flowering especially with early varieties while B. dorsalis was present in all the varieties at all fruit development stages, its color, the wave of flowering and location (N'diaye et al., 2012). Ouédraogo et al. (2010) noted a total preference of C. cosyra for Amelie, Kent, Saber and Springfels varieties and more attacks of B. dorsalis were observed with Brooks and Keitt varieties. The results of N'diaye (2009) and Lo (2017) showed strong presence of B. dorsalis in medium and late varieties. Factors contributing to flies multiplication were high density of certain varieties in the sites, stage of maturity (early, medium and late), size and age of the plot, fruit characteristics (thin, tender, hard or thick skin) and starting date of variety flowering (N'diaye, 2009; Jayanthi et al., 2012; Diatta et al., 2013; Nordey, 2014).
 
Relationship between infestation rate and weight of mangoes
 
The analysis of the results showed low correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.0168 for C. cosyra, R2 = 0.002 for B. dorsalis) between the number of  emerged  flies  and  the weight of mangoes. Similarly, Gomina (2015), Vayssières et al. (2010) and N'diaye (2009) found a variation between the number of emerged flies and the weight of mangoes, respectively in Togo, Benin and Senegal.
 
Sex predominance of emerged fly species from all varieties of mangoes in the laboratory
 
There is no significant difference between the number of males and females of each fly species in general at all sites. The climatic parameters and the type of mango variety do not have an influence on sex. These results are in agreement with those observed by N'dépo et al. (2009), N'diaye (2009) and Gomina (2015) who showed that there is no highly significant difference in relation to sex ratio.
 
Moreover, results from current study were negatively affected by the loss of larvae during fruit stung transportation at the laboratory due to the heat and predator attacks (ants and spiders) at the place of incubation.


 CONCLUSION

The study revealed two major flies’ species (B. dorsalis and C. cosyra) a total of 3 511 flies emerged from the sample incubated and no significant difference was recorded in the set. Valencia, Amelie, Kent, Davis Haden and Keitt were preferred by C. cosyra whereas B. dorsalis species preferred more Keitt, Brooks, Kent and Smith varieties. The infestation rate depended on the varieties of mangoes and collection sites. No correlation was recorded between the weight of the incubated fruits and the emerging fly species and the same with the sex.
 
This study will lead us, on one hand, to the use of the parasitoids Fopuis arinasus in the biological control of the species B. dorsalis and on the other hand, to the popularization of the least pricked mango varieties according to the different periods of maturity. To limit losses, fruits should be harvested just after physiological maturity.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.

 


 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank the CNRA (National Agricultural Research Committee) for the financial contribution, the Faculty of Science and Technique (FST) of University of Technique and Technology of Bamako (USTTB) for technical supports and owners of different orchards.



 REFERENCES

European Commission (2018). Trade in plants & plant products from non-EU countries. Available at: 

View

 

Computability and Agricultural Diversity Project (PCDA-Mali) (2005). Program for competitiveness and agricultural diversification - Mali. Available at: View

 
 

Diallo B, Coulibaly J, Diarisso T, Staatz J, Traore A, Teme B (2016). Développement de la filière mangue au Mali: analyse des modèles de coordination et de partenariat entre les différents acteurs (Development of the mango sector in Mali: analysis of coordination and partnership approaches between the different actors) (No. 1092-2016-87505). Available at: 

View

 
 

Diatta P, Rey JY, Vayssieres JF, Diarra K, Coly EV, Lechaudel M, Grechi I, N'diaye S, N'diaye O (2013). Fruit phenology of citruses, mangoes and papayas influences egg-laying preferences of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fruits 68(6):507-516.
Crossref

 
 

Duyck PF (2005). Compétition interspécifique et capacités invasives. Le cas des Tephritidae de l'île de La.

 
 

FruiTrop (2018). World mango statistics. 255. pp. 84-85. Available at: 

View

 
 

Gomina M (2015). Contribution to the knowledge of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids in southern Togo (PhD Thesis). (Lomé: University of Lomé.

 
 

Helvetas M (2003). Characterization study of the mango sector of the peri-urban region of Bamako. Program for the Promotion of Agricultural Value Chains (APROFIL) P 68.

 
 

Interprofession of the Mango Industry (IFM) (2016). Campaign of the mango sector in Mali. A turnover of nearly 15 966 634 373 CFA francs.

 
 

Interprofession of the Mango Industry (IFM) (2017). Mango sector: 16,879 tonnes exported in 2017.

 
 

Jayanthi PDK, Woodcock CM, Caulfield J, Birkett MA, Bruce TJ (2012). Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:361-369.
Crossref

 
 

Keita FY (2015). Seasonal Fluctuations of Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in a Sudanian Zone in Mali. (PhD thesis) (Bamako: Mali University of Science, Technology and Technology of Bamako) 180 p.

 
 

Keita YF, Sodio BA, Quilici S, Maiga HM, Chiroleu F, Diarra B, Koné T (2016). Relationships between climatic factors and fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in a Sudanian zone in Mali 80-103 CBRST Papers No. 10 December 2016 Environment and Engineering Sciences ISSN: 1840-703X, Cotonou (Benin).

 
 

Konta IS, Djiba S, Sane S, Diassi L, Ndiaye AB, Noba K (2015). Study of the dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards in Lower Casamance: influence of climatic factors. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 9(6):2698-2715.
Crossref

 
 

Lo RA (2017). Infestation of mangos in the Niayes zone: kinetics of evolution of fruit flies and their associated parasitoids (Master) (Niayes, Senegal: University of Niayes or Thiés).

 
 

Ministry of Rural Development (MDR) (2002). 2001/2002 Campaign Report. Koulikoro region: Agricultural productions realized in Kati circle. National Directorate of Support to the Rural World p 197.

 
 

N'depo OR, Allou K, Aboua LR, Kouassi KP, Vayssières J-F, De Meyer M (2009). Abundance of fruit flies in fruit production areas of Côte d'Ivoire: population dynamics of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fruit 64:313-324.
Crossref

 
 

N'dépo OR, Hala NF, Gnago A, Allou K, Kouassi KP, Vayssières JF, De Meyer M (2010). Inventory of fruit flies from three agro-ecological regions and host plants associated with the new species, Bactrocera (Bactrocera invadens Drew et al.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Ivory Coast. European journal of scientific research 46(1):62-72. Available at: 

View

 
 

N'diaye O (2009). Host plants and foci of reinfestation of fruit flies: phenological, morpho-physiological factors determining mango infestations. Thies: University of Thies, 76 p. DEA thesis: Agronomy and Crop Protection: University of Thiès. Available at: 

View

 
 

N'diaye O, Vayssieres JF, Rey JY, N'diaye S, Diedhiou PM, Ba CT, Diatta P (2012). Seasonality and range of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host plants in orchards in Niayes and Thies Plateau (Senegal). Fruit 67:311-331.
Crossref

 
 

Nordey T (2014). Analyse expérimentale et modélisation de l'effet de l'environnement sur l'élaboration de la qualité et la maturation de la mangue. Doctoral dissertation, Doctoral dissertation, Université d'Avignon, France.

 
 

Ouédraogo SN (2011). Spatial temporal dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) based on biotic and abiotic factors in mango orchards in western Burkina Faso. UPEC 180. 

View

 
 

Ouédraogo SN, JF Vayssières, Dabire RA, Rouland LC (2010). Local fruit trees hosts fruit flies (#Diptera: Tephritidae #) from mango in western Burkina Faso: Identification and infestation rates. Fruit, Vegetables and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 4(1):36-41.

 
 

Project Supporting Agro-Industrial Competitiveness in Mali (PACAM) (2018). Review of the 2018 mango campaign. 

View

 
 

Passion Entomology (2014). Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae. Available at: 

View

 
 

Thiam AM, Haidara M, Fofana M, Sidibé MA (2001). Study of the capitalization of information on the fruits and vegetables sector (Etude de capitalisation de l'information sur la filiere fruits et legumes). Available at: 

View

 
 

Tinkeu L, Ladang D, Vayssieres JF, Lyannaz J (2011). Diversity of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a mixed orchard in the locality of Malang (Ngaoundéré, Cameroon). International Journal Biological and Chemical Sciences 4(5):1425-1434.
Crossref

 
 

Vayssières JF (2002). The complex of fruit flies (Diptera-Tephritidae) subservient to mango trees in Mali. Mission report, 61. Available at: View

 
 

Vayssières JF, Sanogo F, Noussourou M (2004). Inventory of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango in Mali and control trials. Fruits 59:3-16. 

View
Crossref

 
 

Vayssières JF, Korie S, Ayegnon D (2009). Correlation of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation of major mango cultivars in Borgou (Benin) with abiotic and biotic factors and assessment of damage. Corps Protection 28(6):477-488. 
Crossref

 
 

Vayssières JF, Sinzogan A, Amoussou L, Ayegnon D, Ouagoussounon I, Modjibou S (2010). Inventory, production period of the main local fruit species of the Guinean-Sudanese zone of Benin. Fruit, Vegetables and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 4(1):42-46.

 
 

Vayssières JF, Sinzogan A, Adandonon A, Rey JY, Dieng EO, Camara K, Sangaré M, Ouédraogo S, Hala N, Sidibé A, Keita Y, Gogovor G, Korie S, Coulibaly O, Kikissagbé C, Tossou A, Billah M, Biney K, Nobime O, Diatta P, N'dépo R, Noussourou M, Traoré L, Saizonou S, Tamo M (2014). Annual population dynamics of mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in West Africa: socio-economic aspects, host phenology and implications for management. Fruits 69:207-222. 
Crossref

 

 




          */?>