Journal of
Entomology and Nematology

  • Abbreviation: J. Entomol. Nematol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9855
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEN
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 135

Full Length Research Paper

Two new invasive species recorded in Kastamonu (Turkey): Oak lace bug [Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832)] and sycamore lace bug [Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832)] (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kastamonu University, 37150, Kuzeykent, Kastamonu, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 July 2014
  •  Accepted: 03 September 2014
  •  Published: 30 September 2014


The oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say) is an important invasive species that causes severe damage to oak species. It was first identified in Europe in 2000. It was recorded for the first time in Turkey in 2003 in Bolu. The sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say) is an invasive species that causes severe damage to sycamore trees. The first time it was reported in Europe was in 1964 in Italy. It was recorded for the first time in Turkey in 2007 in Bolu province. Sixty-seven adult individuals of C. arcuata were collected from Kastamonu in 2013 as well as eight adult individuals of C. ciliata in 2013 and 2014. The present study was completed in 2014 with adult specimens collected from the stem and leaves of Platanus orientalis L., and Quercus spp. trees, located in Kastamonu Central Province and the Çatalzeytin district, and identified in the laboratory. Nymphal skin, egg, adult specimens were observed on the leaves. The damage done by C. ciliata to sycamore trees and by C. arcuata to oak leaves was determined. In this study, the C. ciliata and C. arcuata species were recorded for the first time in Kastamonu.

Key words: Corythucha arcuataCorthucha ciliata, Kastamonu, oak, sycamore, Tingidae.


The species of the Tingoidea superfamily are generally small and they tend to stay on the undersides of leaves and therefore go unnoticed. The first sign of their exis-tence is via their feeding on leaves. They are known as plant mites in various parts of the world. They usually overwinter as adults. They lay their eggs on  host plants’ leaves. They have two or more generations per year (Drew and Arnold, 1977).

The natural distribution area of oak lace bugs, Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) is east of the Rocky Mountains, North America (Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010). Corythucha arcuata was reported for the first time in Europe in Northern Italy (in the Lombardy and Piedmond regions) in May 2000 (Bernardinelli and Zandigiacomo, 2000; Bernardinelli, 2006). Examples are thought to have appeared a few years earlier and spread to a large area (Bernardinelli and Zandigiacomo, 2000). Later, they were reported in Switzerland in 2002 and in Turkey in 2003 (Forster et al., 2005; Mutun, 2003). They were reported in Iran in 2011 (Samin and Linnavuori, 2011). In 2013, they were reported in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula for the first time (Dobreva et al., 2013). Also in 2013, they were reported in Hungary and Croatia for the first time (György et al., 2013; Hrašovec et al., 2013).

Corythucha arcuata was observed in Bolu in Turkey for the first time in 2003 (Mutun, 2003). In 2009, it was reported that C. arcuata, which causes severe damage to oak, had dispersed to Düzce, Zonguldak, Sakarya, Kocaeli, Eski?ehir, Ankara, Çank?r? and Bilecik, a total area of 28.000 km2 in Turkey (Mutun et al., 2009). In 2010, Ero?lu and Keskin (2010) determined the existence and damage caused by C. arcuata in their study conducted in De?irmendere and the Solakl? Basins, Trabzon.

Oak lace bugs are small, rectangular, dorsoventrally flattened insects. Adults have transparent, lace-like textured wings that are held flat over the insect’s body. Their wing tips and outer margins extend beyond the body. The adults are cream-colored with black or brown patches (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965). Adults have gray to black front wings and a height of 3-3.5 mm, nymphs have black spines on their bodies. Adults hibernate in bark cracks. Females lay eggs on the undersides of leaves. Development from egg to adult takes 30-45 days and they have 2-4 generations per year (Rabitsch, 2008; Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010).

Adults and nymphs feed directly on the leaf. They feed by piercing the leaf epidermis from the underside of the leaves with their piercing-sucking mouthparts and drawing out the cellular sap material. This causes a reduction of photosynthesis levels, premature defoliation and a cones-quent discoloration of the leaves. It has also been reported that this feeding may cause increased sensitivity to other insects, various diseases and pollution. Adults and nymphs feed on the lower surface of the leaves, producing many characteristic black spots, while on the upper surface of leaves chlorotic discoloration is the typical symptom (Wittenberg et al., 2006; Rabitsch, 2008; Mutun et al., 2009; Dobreva et al., 2013).

Their hosts are Quercus alba, Quercus montana, Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus muehlenbergii, Quercus prinoide, Quercus rubra, sometimes apple trees, chestnuts, maples and wild roses (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965). Their host plants so far discovered in Italy and Turkey are thought to be hybrids: Quercus robur, Quercus pubescens and Q, robur and Quercus petraea (Bernardinelli and Zandigiacomo, 2000; Mutun et al., 2009). The potential host plant distribution and growth duration of C. arcuata in Europe were researched in a laboratory environment by Bernardinelli (2006).  In  a  study  done on leaves cut from different plants, most of the lace bugs (?50%) reached   adulthood   on  deciduous  European  oaks  (Q. robur, Q. pubescens, Q. petraea (Mattuschka), Q. cerris) and also on Rubus ulmifolius and Rubus ideaus; a reduction in reaching adulthood (?25%) was detected on Castanea sativa, Rubus caesius and Rosa canina. It was determined that nymphs could not live on Q. rubra, evergreen oaks Quercus suber and Quercus ilex; Malus domestica and four types of silver birches that were tested. It was determined that C. arcuata may have numerous host plants in the Palaearctic region but that it prefers deciduous oaks. It was reported that the wide choice and distribution of host plants may have allowed C. arcuata to have wide distribution in Europe.

The natural distribution area of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) is east of the Rocky Mountains, North America. They are a Nearctic tingid species which feed on undersides of Platanus spp. leaves (especially Platanus occidentalis). They are found in the eastern parts of USA and the eastern parts of Canada (Halbert and Meeker, 1998; Robinson, 2005; Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010).

The first report of the sycamore lace bugs in Europe was when they were observed in Padua, Southern Italy in late 1964 (Servadei, 1966). They reached Crotia (Majelski and Balarin, 1972a) and Slovenia (Majelski and Balarin, 1972b) within a few years; Serbia (Tomic and Mihaliovic, 1974), Hungary (Jasinka and Bozsits 1977), Switzerland (Dioli, 1975), France (d'Aguilar et al., 1977) (including Corsica) and Spain (Ribes, 1980; Sotresand Vazquez 1981) in the 1970s, and Southern Italy (Sicily), Sardinia, Southern Austria (Mildner, 1983), Germany (Hopp, 1984) in the early 1980s. They were also observed in Bulgaria (1987) (Josifov, 1990) and Greece (1988) (Tzanakakis, 1988), Montenegro (Protic, 1998), the Czech Republic (1995) and Slovakia (1997) (Stehlik, 1997). They are now dispersed throughout most of Europe including Portugal (Kment, 2007; Grosso-Silva and Aguiar, 2007) and Russia (Voight, 2001). Recently, they were found in the United Kingdom on Platanus acerifolia and Platanus orientalis imported from Italy (Malumphy and Reid, 2006). They were also found in Belgium (Aukema et al., 2007), Holland (Aukema and Hermes, 2009) and Poland (Lis, 2009). At the same time, they were found in Turkey (Mutun, 2009), China (Streito, 2006), Korea (Chung et al., 1996), Japan (Tokihiro et al., 2003), Chile (Prado, 1990) and Australia (Dominiak et al., 2008). This species has probably the largest distribution in Europe within the Heteroptera (Rabitsch, 2008).

The sycamore lace bug was reported for the first time in Turkish fauna in an area of 120 km2 in the northwest of the country in 2007 (Mutun, 2009). Later, it was reported in Tekirda? in 2009 (Aysal and K?van, 2011) and in Trabzon in 2011 (Sevim et al., 2013).

Adult sycamore lace bugs, C. ciliata are flat, small and white tingid insects with wide, transparent lace-like wings (Drake and  Ruhoff, 1965). They  are around 3.3-3.7 mm in length and pale white with light brown ventral faces. The pronotum is  partly  brown with brown stains on wing cases (Heiss, 1995; Halbert and Meeker, 1998; Robinson, 2005). Nymphs are black, brownish white and have spikes on the body (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965; Robinson 2005). Females lay up to 350 eggs. Eggs are deposited singly or in groups adjacent to veins on the underside of the leaf; hatching is in 7-28 days. Their growth from egg to adulthood takes 35-45 days (Robinson, 2005; Rabitsch and Streito, 2010).

The sycamore lace bug overwinters under peeling barks and other sheltered places. When the temperature reaches 8°C in spring, adults appear and begin to suck on sprouting leaves. The first eggs are laid in May and the first nymphs hatch from the eggs in the third week of embryonic development. Although around 350 eggs have been reported (d’Aguilar et al., 1977), the egg number per female varies between 80 and 160 (Özsi et al., 2005). In the suitable climate conditions of the Mediterranean region, they have 2-3 generations. They spend the whole growth process on the host tree (Heiss, 1995). C. ciliata has five nymphal phases. In Central Europe, second generation adults appear and when the temperatures fall, they look for a place to overwinter (Özsi et al., 2005).

Both adults and nymphs of C. ciliata feed on the underside of leaves and cause chlorotic stippling on the underside and cholorotic discoloration on the upperside. The damage causes a reduction in respiration and photosynthesis and reduces the aesthetic value of trees. Consequently, fading occurs and leaves may fall off earlier than usual in late summer (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965; Halbert and Meeker, 1998). Combined with other factors such as disease (for example, cankers on the surface) or environmental stress, the damages caused by C. ciliata may affect a tree’s life. Along with weakening the tree, it decreases their value (Majelski, 1986; Wittenberg et al., 2006). The sycamore lace bug has become a big problem in Europe since sycamore is a popular shade bearer there. The sycamore lace bug is a particular problem in open-air bars and cafes shaded with sycamores. It may also disturb people in parks and gardens. Usually it only has an aesthetic effect. The bug can, however, also infest houses (Maceljski 1986; Rabitsch and Streito, 2010).

Sycamore lace bugs feed on various species of Platanus (Platanaceae). It is distributed on P. occidentalis, P. orientalis and P. acerifolia, which is a hybrid of the two used as an ornamental tree in cities. In addition, C. ciliata's host plants have been reported as Fraxinus spp., Caryaovata, Brousseneita papyrifera, Chamaedaphne, ash trees and North American chestnuts (Robinson, 2005; Rabitsch and Streito, 2010; Drake and Ruhoff, 1965).

The main difference between C. arcuata and C. ciliata is the front wing coloration (Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010). C. arcuata can be distinguished from C. ciliata by the large, brown strip on the elytra and especially near the basal part of elytra. There are whitish stains on an adult C. ciliata’s hemielytra and brown stains on the hemielytra’sridges.

Its relationship with the host plant should be determinative (Halbert and Meeker, 1998).

The aim of this study is to report on C. arcuata and C. ciliata from Kastamonu, which have not been reported here before. Additionally, it aims to give information, based on the existing literature and observation, about their distribution in Turkey and the world, their biology, the damage they cause and methods to control this damage.


The material of the study consists of both species’ eggs, nymph shells and adults, and samples of damaged leaves. In our study, adult specimens, which had been collected from P. orientalis and Quercus spp. in Kastamonu city centre and Çatalzeytin in 2013, were brought to the laboratory and examined. Also, observations were done in the field and the presence of eggs, nymph shells and adults of C. ciliata on sycamore leaves and the damage caused, and the presence of eggs, nymph shells and adults of C. arcuata and the damage caused on oak leaves was determined. In May 2013, adult specimens were collected by hand and with an aspirator from the walls of the Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University, and also stems and leaves from P. orientalis trees on both sides of the Karaçomak River which divides Kastamonu city centre, and Quercus spp. leaves from around the Çatalzeytin Campus of Kastamonu University Vocational High School. The specimens were killed and preserved in 70% ethyl alchohol. Eggs, nymph shells and P. orientalis and Quercus spp. leaves found in field observations to be showing discoloration because of damage caused by insects were brought into the laboratory in plastic bags in order to be examined. Specimens were identified and photographed with a Leica S8APO stereomicroscope. Specimens were preserved in 70% ethyl alchohol in Research Laboratory of Department of Biology.


C. arcuata was collected from the walls of the Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University in 2013 and 2014. During examinations in the campus and city centre, C. arcuata was collected from stems of P. orientalis trees on both sides of the Karaçormak River which divides Kastamonu city centre. Adults, eggs, nymph shells, feces and damage caused by C. arcuata were found on Quercus spp. leaves in field observations done in Çatalzeytin in September 2013.

In observations made in November 2013 and January 2014, C. ciliata was collected from stems and leaves of P. orientalis trees in Kastamonu city centre. Adults, over-wintering under barks, eggs, nymph shells, feces and damage caused by C. ciliata were found on the stems and leaves of P. orientalis.


Corythucha STÅL 1873

Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832)

Material examined: KASTAMONU: 5 ??, 3 ??, Kuzeykent, Walls of Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University, 23.05.2013; 1 ?, Merkez, Çengeller, stem of P. orientalis, 21 ??, Merkez, between Kastamonu University, Faculty of Education and K??la park, stem of P. orientalis, 16.09.2013; 13 ??, Kuzeykent, Walls of Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University, 27.09.2013; 1 ?, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University, stem of P. orientalis, 01.10.2013; 10 ??, Kuzeykent, Walls of Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University 02.10.2013; 1 ?, Çatalzeytin, Kastamonu University Vocational High School,Çatalzeytin Campus, leaves of Quercus spp., 05.10.2013; 7??, Kuzeykent, Walls of Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University, 10.10.2013; 3 ??, Kuzeykent, Walls of Faculty of Science and Literature building, Kastamonu University 22.10.2013; 1 ?, Çatalzeytin, Kastamonu-Çatalzeytin 88 km highway, road sides, falling leaves of Quercus spp., 09.11.2013; 1 ?, Çatalzeytin, Kastamonu University Vocational High School,Çatalzeytin Campus, leaves of Quercus spp., 16.11.2013.


Distribution in Turkey: Bolu, Düzce, Zonguldak, Sakarya, Kocaeli, Eski?ehir, Ankara, Çank?r?, Bilecik and Trabzon (Mutun, 2003; Mutunet al., 2009; Ero?lu and Keskin 2010). It is recorded for the first time in Kastamonu.


Distribution in the world: North America, Italy, Switzerland, Turkey, Iran, Bulgaria, Hungary and Croatia (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965; Bernardinelli and Zandigiacomo, 2000; Forster et al., 2005; Mutun, 2003; Samin and Linnavuori, 2011; Dobreva et al., 2013; György et al., 2013; Hrašovec et al., 2013).


Corythucha ciliata (Say, 1832)

Material examined: KASTAMONU: 2 ??, Merkez, Cumhuriyet Square, stem of P. orientalis, 03.11.2013; 2 ??, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University, under tree barks of P. orientalis, 05.11.2013; 2 ??, Parking lot of Kastamonu University Vocational High School, leaves of P. orientalis, 1 ?, Parking lot of Kastamonu University Vocational High School, under tree barks of P. orientalis, 12.01.2014; 1 ?, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University, under tree barks of P. orientalis, 18.01.2014.


Distribution in Turkey: Bolu, Tekirda? and Trabzon (Mutun, 2009; Aysal and K?van, 2011; Sevim et al., 2013).      It is recorded for the first time in Kastamonu.


Distribution in the world: North America, Canada, Italy, Crotia, Slovenia, Serbia, Hungary, Switzerland, France (including Corsica), Spain, Southern Italy (Sicily), Sardinia, Southern Austria, Germany, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Portugal, Russia, United Kingdom, Belgium, Holland, Poland, Turkey, China, Korea, Japan, Chile and Australia (Drake and Ruhoff, 1965; Servadei, 1966; Majelski and Balarin, 1972a; Majelski and Balarin 1972b; Tomic and Mihaliovic, 1974; Jasinka and Bozsits 1977; Dioli, 1975;d'Aguilar et al., 1977; Ribes, 1980; Sotres and Vazquez 1981; Mildner, 1983; Hopp, 1984; Josifov, 1990; Tzanakakis, 1988; Protic, 1998; Stehlik, 1997; Kment, 2007; Grosso-Silva and Aguiar, 2007; Voight, 2001; Malumphy and Reid 2006; Aukema et al., 2007; Aukema and Hermes, 2009; Lis, 2009; Mutun, 2009; Streito, 2006; Chung et al., 1996; Tokihiro et al., 2003; Prado, 1990; Dominiak et al., 2008; Halbert and Meeker, 1998; Robinson, 2005; Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010).


In this study, a total of sixty-seven C. arcuata specimens were collected. Forty-one of them were collected from the walls of the Faculty of Science and Literature building at Kastamonu University. The building is situated on open land on the northern side of Kastamonu. The specimens were found on the wall as a group. The specimens might have been blown here by the wind or by flying. Twenty-three specimens were collected from a P. orientalis stem. At first, we thought that the specimens belonged to C. ciliata. However, when we brought the specimens and identified them with the stereomicroscope, we found out they were C. arcuata. P. orientalis trees are found frequently on both sides of the Karaçormak River which divides Kastamonu city centre into two, and which is shown in Figure 1a. This area also has the main arterial roads used by pedestrians and vehicles. The fact that C. arcuata was on P. orientalis stems can be explained by the heavy pedestrian and vehicle traffic on these main arterial roads: insects may have been carried in this way, such that, in September and October, when specimens are found widely, C. arcuata was found on sycamore stems and on people’s clothes. In this period adults look for an overwintering place and the bark of sycamore is a better place than oak bark. Three specimens were collected from the leaves of Quercus spp. in field surveys done in Çatalzeytin. Adults, eggs, nymph shells are shown in Figure 1b, c-d and e, respectively. On the other hand, feces and damage caused by C. arcuata collected from the undersides of Quercus spp. leaves are shown in Figure 1f.



In laboratory examinations, C. arcuata collected in Kastamonu were measured and their length was found to be 3.0-3.5 mm and their width was found to be 1.5-2.0 mm. The eggs were laid on the undersides of the leaves as a group of 30-40, and relatively ordered. As in C. ciliata, they were not near the veins, and had a more open positon. Many nymph shells and feces were found on the infested leaves. The black dots created by feces covered almost the whole undersurface of the leaf. A chlorotic discoloration level of 50% was observed on infested Quercus spp. leaves. Chlorotic discoloration, brown stains and drying are the most visible effects of the pest.

Its wide distribution is possibly caused by human activities, the flight of adults and the wind (Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010). Since the first record of C. arcuata in Bolu in 2003, it has been reported in cities nearby with compatible host plants (Mutun et al., 2009). In the study they conducted near large highways, Mutun et al. (2009) concluded that C. arcuata appeared to coincide with human activity and other parts of Turkey should be looked at too in order to determine the degree of urgency of this. The fact that Kastamonu and other cities in Turkey in which C. arcuata have been reported are close to each other and have similar vegetation shows that C. arcuata reached Kastamonu easily. It is possible that species dispersed by flight or were carried by pedestrian and vehicle traffic to Kastamonu. C. arcuata is not considered as an important pest species, possibly because it is controlled by its natural enemies. Its environmental and economic effects in Europe are unknown because these natural enemies are not sufficient in Europe, however, since oaks are the primary forest trees in Europe, its effects might be more severe in the areas it appears (Wittenberg et al., 2006; Rabitsch and Kenis, 2010).

In the study, eight specimens of C. ciliata were collected from P. orientalis trees in the city. Two of the specimens were collected from the stem of P. orientalis near Cumhuriyet Square, which is on the main arterial road. Based on the information in literature that adults overwinter under tree barks, four specimens were collec-ted from under loose barks of sycamore while over-wintering. This is shown in Figure 2a. Two specimens were collected from the leaves of sycamore. In obser-vation, adults, eggs, nymph shells are shown in Figure 2b-c, d-e and f-g, respectively  On the other hand, feces and damage caused by C. ciliata were found on the undersides of sycamore leaves as shown in Figure 2h-i.



In this study, specimens of C. ciliata collected from Kastamonu had a body length of 3.5-3.9 mm and a body width of 2.2-2.5 mm. Approximately 40-50 eggs were laid on sycamore leaves, as groups of 8-10, relatively ordered, on the undersides of leaves and the sheltered main parts where the veins connect. In observations made on sycamores on the main street of Kastamonu city centre, eggs, nymph shells, feces and chlorotic discolorations were found when fallen leaves were examined. This shows that the pest is effective on P. orientalis leaves in Kastamonu and causes them to fall off prematurely. It is expected that this species will disperse in a very short time, since P. orientalis trees are its primary hosts and are present on sidewalks and parks in Kastamonu city cente and pedestrian and vehicle traffic is very heavy on main arterial roads.

Adults are good flyers and they can easily disperse with the help of the wind. Their long distribution distance possibly occurs through human activity (in vehicles and on clothes). Their method of distribution throughout Europe is, however, probably through human activity (Wittenberg et al., 2006; Rabitsch and Streito, 2010).

During field trips in summer 2007 in Ta?kesti and Abant, Bolu, which is located near two main highways and big cities, hundreds of adults were found on heavily infested P. orientalis trees. Additionally, various nymph phases, shells, eggs, black feces and signs of feeding were found on the leaves. Although C. ciliata adults are not good flyers, it seems that winds and human factors help it to disperse over long distances (Mutun, 2009).

Our research revealed that sycamore lace bugs have indeed spread throughout Kastamonu and cause harmful effects on sycamore trees. It should be noted that due to the ability of lace bugs to easily spread with the help of the wind and human activiy, sycamore trees in urban areas are especially under threat.

Sycamore lace bugs may be controlled with insecticide practices. The alternative method to control sycamore lace bugs is to place sticky material on the barks of the host tree in early spring before the tree sprouts (Özsi et al., 2005). In order to protect from significant damage, the repetitive use of organic phosphorus, synthetic pyrethroid, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or acetamiprid pesticides is recommended as a control method (Kim et al., 2000; Ju et al., 2009). The use of chemical insecticides for C. ciliata control is problematic in urban areas where the pest is present for safety reasons (Halbert and Meeker, 2001). Shapiro-Ilan and Mizel (2012) reported that there are no biological options for controlling C. ciliata. They reviewed six different entomopathological  nematodes  which cause disease on sycamore leaf discs in the laboratory to control C. ciliata. Findings on its lethality and production capacity showed that Heterohabditis indica (HOM1) has a high potential for suppressing C. ciliata. Various entomopathological nematodes and additional studies such as field studies are expected to manage control of C. ciliata. Sevim et al. (2013) screened thirteen entomopathogenic fungal strains including 4 isolates of Beauveria bassiana, 2 isolates of Beauveria pseudobassiana, 6 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, and 1 isolate of Isaria fumosorosea against adults and nymphs of C. ciliata. They reported that B. bassiana isolate KTU – 24 showed the highest mortality for both adults and nymphs with 86% within 2 weeks after inoculation. This isolate also caused the highest mycosis for adults and nymphs with 83 and 80%, respectively.


Corythuca species that include both the oak lace bug C. arcuata, found on Quercus, and the sycamore lace bug C. ciliata, found on Platanus, entered Italy from North America and they live on their own host plants. C. arcuata appeared ten years ago and has only recently started to spread (Dioli et al., 2007), but C. ciliata appeared in 1960s and today they have spread through Europe (Rabitsch, 2010).

This study has examined two tingid species, C. arcuata and C. Ciliata, with regard to their distribution in Turkey and across the world, their biological characteristics, their host plants, the damage they cause and relevant pest control methods. This study is also the first research which demonstrates that C. arcuata and C. ciliata have been found in Kastamonu.


The author(s) have not declared any conflict of interests.


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