Journal of
Ecology and The Natural Environment

  • Abbreviation: J. Ecol. Nat. Environ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9847
  • DOI: 10.5897/JENE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 394

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of types of damage and causes of human-wildlife conflict in Gera district, south western Ethiopia

Leta Gobosho Amaja
  • Leta Gobosho Amaja
  • College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopa.
  • Google Scholar
Debela Hunde Feyssa
  • Debela Hunde Feyssa
  • College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopa.
  • Google Scholar
Tariku Mekonnen Gutema
  • Tariku Mekonnen Gutema
  • College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopa.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 17 October 2015
  •  Accepted: 05 February 2016
  •  Published: 31 May 2016


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Barnes RF, Boafo Y, Nandjui A, Umaru-Farouk D, Hema E, Danquah E, Manford M (2003). An overview of crop-raiding by Elephants around Kakum Conservation Area, Elephant Biology and Management Project Africa Program, Conservation International.


Bartlett J, Joe W, Chadwick C (2001).Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Inf. Technol. Learn. Perform. J. 19(1):43-50.


Bekele A, Yosef M, Dereje Y (2011). Population estimation of Menelik's(Tragelaphusscriptusmeneliki,Neumann 1902) from denkoro forest proposed National park, Northern Ethiopia. Int. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 37(1):1-13.


Blair A (2008). Human-wildlife conflict in Laikipia north, Kenya: comparing official reports with the experiences of Maasai pastoralists a thesis submitted to McGill University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science. Department of Geography McGill University, Montreal.


Castro P, Nielsen E (2003).Natural resource conflict management case studies: an analysis of power, participation and protected areas, Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations.


Conover M (2002).Resolving human-wildlife conflicts the science of wildlife damage management, Lewis Publishers, New York, 418p.


Datiko D, Bekele A (2011). Population status and human impact on the endangered Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphusbuselaphusswaynei) in Nechisar plains, Nechisar national park, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol. 49:311-319.


De Beenhouwer M (2011).Effects of habitat fragmentation and coffee cultivation on the of epiphytic orchids in Ethiopian Afromontane forests. Dissertations presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master in biology. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Plant Systematics and Ecology Section.


Edward DW, Frank SA (2012). Victims Perspectives of Lowe's Monkeys' (Cercopithecus campbellilowei) crop raiding events in Ghana: A case of Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary. J. Biodivers. Environ. Sci. 2(2):1-8.


Ellis EC, Klein Goldewijk K, Siebert S, Lightman D, Ramankutty N (2010). Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 19:589-606.


Fairet, Emilie, Maguy, Melanie (2012).Vulnerability to crop-raiding: an interdisciplinary investigation in Loango National Park, Gabon, Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Available at:


Hanks J (2006). Mitigation of human–elephant conflict in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area, with particular reference to the use of chili peppers. Cape Town: Conservation International.


Hill C, Osborn F, Plumptre AJ (2002). Human-wildlife conflict: Identifying the problem and possible solutions, Albertine Rift Technical Report Series Vol. 1, Wildlife Conservation Society.


Hoffman T (2011). The spatial ecology of Chacma baboons (Papioursinus) in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa: Towards improved management and conservation strategies .Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Zoology University of Cape Town.


Hundera K (2007). Traditional forest management practices in Jimma Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Educ. Sci. 2(2):1-10.


IUCN (2005). Preventing and mitigating Human-Wildlife conflicts: WPC Recommendation V.20.


Johansson T (2002). The Spatial dimension of Human-Wildlife conflicts, Discoveries of New Animal Geography, University of Helsinki.


Jones E (2012).Tackling Human-Wildlife conflict, a prerequisite for Linking conservation and poverty alleviation, poverty and conservation learning group discussion paper. No. 06 Indonesia.


Joseline M (2010).The impact of crop raiding by wild animals from Bugoma forest reserve on farmers' livelihoods. A research thesis submitted to Maker ere University Institute of Environment and Natural Resource (MUIENR) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Environment and Natural Resource of Makerere University.


Kate K (2012). Possible strategies/practices in reducing wild animal (Primate) crop raids in unprotected areas in Hoima, District, conducted in two Sub-Counties in Hoima District, Uganda.


Kivai S (2010). Are the Endemic and Endangered Tana River primate's culprits of crop raiding? Evaluating Human – Nonhuman primate conflict status around Tana River Primate Reserve.


Kumssa T, Bekele A (2008). Human-wildlife conflict and population status of Swayne's Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest sanctuary, Master Thesis in Biology (Ecological and Systematic Zoology), Ethiopia.


Lamarque F, Anderson J, Fergusson R, Lagrange M, Osei-Owusu Y, Bakker L (2009). Human-wildlife conflict in Africa cause, consequences and management strategies (No. 157). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).


Leta G, Feyssab DH, Gutema TM (2015).Identification of Crop Raiding Species and the Status of Their Impact on Farmer Resources in Gera, Southwestern Ethiopia. Int. J. Sci. Basic Appl. Res. 22(2):66-82.


Madden F (2008).The growing conflict between humans and wildlife: law and policy as contributing and mitigating factors. J. Int. Wildl. Law Policy 11(2-3):189-206.


Muoria PK, Karere GM, Moinde NN, Suleman MA (2003). Primate census and habitat evaluation in the Tana delta region Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(2):157-163.


Mwamidi D, Nunow A, Mwasi Sh(2012). The Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Minimizing Human-Wildlife Conflict: The Case of Taita Community, Kenya. Int. J. Curr. Res. 4(2):26-30.


NBSAP (2003). Natinal Biodiversity Strategy and action plan. IBC, Addis Ababa.


Priston NE, Wyper RW, Lee PC (2012). Buton Macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): Crops, conflict and behavior on farms. Am. J. Primatol. 74(1):29-36.


Quirin C (2005). Crop raiding by wild vertebrates in the Illubabor Zone, Ethiopia, A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Post-graduate Diploma in Wildlife Management University of Otago, Department of Zoology. New Zealand, Recommendation, Pachyderm 28:68-72.


Strum SC (2010).The Development of Primate Raiding: Implications for Management and Conservation. Int. J. Primatol. 31(1):133-156.


Tefera M (2011). Wildlife in Ethiopia: endemic large mammals. World J. Zool. 6 (2):108-116.


Warren Y (2008). Crop-raiding Baboons (Papioanubis) and defensive farmers: A West African Perspective. West Afr. J. Appl. Ecol. 14:1.


Yihune M, Bekele A, Tefera Z (2009).Human Gelada baboon conflict in and around the Semien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol. 47(3):276-282.