Journal of
Ecology and The Natural Environment

  • Abbreviation: J. Ecol. Nat. Environ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9847
  • DOI: 10.5897/JENE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 394

Full Length Research Paper

A study on ecological distribution and community diversity of spiders in Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary of Kashmir Himalaya

Mansoor Ahmad Lone
  • Mansoor Ahmad Lone
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar -190 006, J&K, India
  • Google Scholar
Idrees Yousuf Dar
  • Idrees Yousuf Dar
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar -190 006, J&K, India
  • Google Scholar
G. A. Bhat
  • G. A. Bhat
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar -190 006, J&K, India
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 23 January 2015
  •  Accepted: 17 March 2015
  •  Published: 31 March 2015

References

Atlegrim O, Sjoberg K, Ball JP (1997). Forestry effects on a boreal ground beetle community in spring: selective logging and clear-cutting compared. Entomol. Fenn. 8:19-26.
 
Beaudry S, Duchesne LC, Cote B (1997). Short-term effects of three forestry practices on carabid assemblages in a jack pine forest. Can. J. Forest Res. 27: 2065-2071.
Crossref
 
Bromham L, Cardillo M, Bennett AF, Elgar, MA (1999). Effects of stock grazing on the ground invertebrate fauna of woodland remnants. Aust. J. Ecol. 24: 199-207.
Crossref
 
Bultman TL, Uetz GW (1982). Abundance and community structure of forest floor spiders following litter manipulation. Oecologia 55:34-41.
Crossref
 
Churchill TB (1997). Spiders as ecological indicators in the Australian tropics: family distribution patterns along rainfall and grazing gradients. In P.A. Selden, Ed., Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology, Edinburgh.
 
Churchill TB, Arthur JM (1999). Measuring spider richness: effects of different sampling methods and spatial and temporal scales. Journal of Insect Conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 4: 287-295.
Crossref
 
Clarke RD, Grant PR (1968). An experimental study of the role of spiders as predators in a forest litter community. Ecology 1152-1154.
Crossref
 
Coddington JA, Levi HW (1991). Systematics and evolution of spiders Araneae. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 22: 565-592.
Crossref
 
Coddington JA, Young LH, Coyle FA (1996) Estimating spider species richness in a southern Appalachian cove hardwood forest. J Arachnol 24:111–128
 
Colwell RK, Huston MA (1991). Conceptual framework and research issues for species diversity at community level. In: Solbrig O.T. (Ed.), From genes to ecosystems: a research agenda for biodiversity. International Union of Biological Sciences, Paris, France, pp. 37-71.
 
Curtis DJ (1980). Pitfall in spider community. (Arachnida : Aranaea). J. Arachnol. 8: 280-281.
 
Duchesne LC, Mcalpine RS (1993). Using carabid beetles Coleoptera: Carabidae as a means to investigate the effect of forestry practices on soil diversity. Forestry Canada Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada Report No. 16.
 
Duchesne LC, Lautenschlager RA, Bell FW (1999). Effects of clearcutting and plant competition control methods on carabid Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages in north western Ontario. Environ. Monit. Assess. 56: 87-96.
Crossref
 
Duffey E (1962). A population study of spiders in limestone grassland. J. Anim. Ecol. 31: 571–599.
Crossref
 
Edwards CA, Butler CG, Lofty JR (1976). The Invertebrate fauna of the park grass plots II. Surface fauna. Rep. Rothamst. Exp. Stn. 1975, Part 2: 63–89.
 
Heyborne WH, Miller JC, Parsons GL (2003). Ground dwelling beetles and forest vegetation change over a 17-year period, in western Oregon, USA. Forest Ecol. Manage. 179:123-134.
Crossref
 
Hodge S, Vink CK (2010). An evaluation of Lycosa hilaris as an indicator of organophosphate insecticide contamination. New Zealand Plant Prot. 53:226-229
 
Kellert SR (1986). Social and perceptual factors in the preservation of animal species. In B.G. Norton, Ed., The Preservation of Species: The Value of Biological Diversity. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
PMid:3697519
 
Kitching RL, Vickerman G, Laidlaw M, Hurley K (2000). The comparative assessment of Arthopod and tree biodiversity in old world forest. The rainforest CRC/Earthwatch protocol manual. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management. Technical Report Rainforest. CRC Crains
 
Krebs CJ (1989). Ecological methodology. Harper and Row, New York, USA.
 
Lawrence KL, Wise DH (2004). Unexpected indirect effect of spiders on the rate of litter disappearance in a deciduous forest. Pedobiologia 48: 149–157.
Crossref
 
Lawrence KL, Wise DH (2000). Spider predation on forest-floor Collembola and evidence for indirect effects on decomposition. Pedobiologia 44: 33–39.
Crossref
 
Margurran AE (1988). Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
Crossref
 
McCoy ED (1990). The distribution of insects along elevational gradients. Oikos 58: 313-322.
Crossref
 
Moulder BC, Reichle DE (1972). Significance of spider predation in the energy dynamics of forest-floor arthropod communities. Ecol. Monogr. 42: 473-498.
Crossref
 
Niemela J, Langor D, Spence JR (1993). Effects of clear-cut harvesting on boreal ground-beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in western Canada. Conserv. Biol. 7: 551-556.
Crossref
 
Otto C, Svensson BS (1982). Structure of communities of Ground living
Crossref
 
Pearce JL, Venier LA (2006). The use of ground beetles Coleoptera: Carabidae and spiders Araneae as bioindicators of sustainable forest management: A review. Ecol. Indic. 6: 780–793.
Crossref
 
Pearse A (1946). Observations on the microfauna of the Duke forest. Ecol. Monogr. 16: 127–150.
Crossref
 
Platnick NI (2011).The world spider catalog, version 12.0. American Museum of Natural History.
 
Price PW (1997). Insect Ecology. 3rd ed. Wiley & Sons, New York.
 
Riechert SE (1981). The consequences of being territorial: spiders, a case study. Am. Nat. 117: 871-892.
Crossref
 
Riechert SE, Lockley TC (1984). Spiders as biological control agents. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 29: 299-320.
Crossref
 
Rosenzweig ML (1995). Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Crossref
 
Russell-Smith A (1999). The Spiders of Mkomazi Game Reserve. In: M. Coe et al., Eds., Mkomazi: The Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society, London.
 
Siliwal M, Molur S, Biswas BK. (2009). Indian Spiders (Arachnida: Aranaea): Update checklist 2009. Zoos Plant J. 20(10): 1999-2049.
Crossref
 
Skerl KL (1999). Spiders in conservation planning: a survey of US natural heritage programs. J. Insect Conserv. 3:341-347.
Crossref
 
Specht HB, Dondale CD (1960). Spider populations in New Jersey apple orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 810–814.
Crossref
 
Uetz, GW (1991). Habitat structure and spider foraging. In: S.S. Bell, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky, Eds., Habitat Structure: The physical arrangement of objects in space. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.
Crossref
 
Van Hook RI (1971). Energy and nutrient dynamics of spider and orthopteran populations in a grassland ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr. 41: 1–26.
Crossref
 
Werner M, Raffa KF (2000). Effects of forest management practices on the diversity of ground occurring beetles in mixed northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. For. Ecol. Manage. 139: 135-155.
Crossref
 
Yen AI (1995). Australian spiders: An opportunity for conservation. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 39-47.
 
Ziesche T, Roth M (2008). Influence of environmental parameters on small-scale distribution of soil-dwelling spiders in forests: What makes the difference, tree species or microhabitat? Forest Ecol. Manage. 255:738-752.
Crossref