Journal of
Ecology and The Natural Environment

  • Abbreviation: J. Ecol. Nat. Environ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9847
  • DOI: 10.5897/JENE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 364


Is the expansion of Eucalyptus tree a curse or an opportunity? Implications from a dispute on the tree’s ecological and economic impact in Ethiopia: A review

Aklilu Bajigo Madalcho
  • Aklilu Bajigo Madalcho
  • Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture, Wolaita Sodo University, SNNP Region, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Bekele Lemma
  • Bekele Lemma
  • Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Hawassa University, SNNP Region, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Merkineh Mesene Mena
  • Merkineh Mesene Mena
  • Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture, Wolaita Sodo University, SNNP Region, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Barana Babiso Badesso
  • Barana Babiso Badesso
  • Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, College of Social Science and Humanities, Wolaita Sodo University, SNNP Region, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 01 May 2019
  •  Accepted: 05 July 2019
  •  Published: 31 July 2019


Abebe M, Tadesse W (2014). Eucalyptus in Ethiopia: Risk or Opportunity? EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Website: 

View ISBN: 978-99944-53-91-4, 65p.


Ahmed R, Rafiqul Hoque ATM, Hossain MK (2008). Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops. Journal of Forestry Research 19(1):19-24.


Alebachew M, Amare T, Wendie M (2015). Investigation of the Effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Performance of Neighbouring Crop Productivity in Western Amhara, Ethiopia Open Access Library Journal 2 p.


Alem S, Woldemariam T (2010). Regeneration of Coffea arabica and quality of coffee found in an Eucalyptus grandis plantation. In: Gil, Wubalem, Tolosana, and Lopez (eds). Eucaluptus Species Management, History, Status and Trends in Ethiopia 409 p.


Alemu M (2016). Eucalyptus Tree Production in Wolayita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia. Open Access Library Journal 3.


Amare G (2010). Eucalyptus farming in Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus farm and village woodlots in Amhara Region. In Gil, Wubalem, Tolosana, and Lopez (Eds.). Eucalyptus species management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia (65-74). Proceedings from the congress held in Addis Ababa. September 15-17, 2010. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Babiso B, Toma S, Bajigo A (2016). Land use/Land Cover Dynamics and its Implication on Sustainable Land Management in Wallecha Watershed, Southern Ethiopia. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science 16(4):49-53.


Bajigo A, Tadesse M (2015). Woody Species Diversity of Traditional Agroforestry Practices in Gununo Watershed in Wolayitta Zone, Ethiopia. Forest Research 4:155.


Bajigo A (2017). The Effect of Land Use Change on Soil Physicochemical Properties over Time in Ethiopia. Journal of Developing Country Studies 7(3):60-71.


Bekele T (2015). Integrated Utilization of Eucalyptus Globulus grown on the Ethiopian Highlands and its Contribution to Rural Livelihood: A Case Study of Oromia, Amhara and Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Regional State Ethiopia. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4(2):80-87.


Bioversity International (2017). Mainstreaming Agro-biodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems: Scientific Foundations for an Agro-biodiversity Index. Bio. I, Rome, Italy.


Ceccon E (2007). Production of bioenergy on small farms: a two-year agroforestry experiment using Eucalyptus urophlla intercropped with rice and beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil. New Forests (16 Nov 2007).


Ceccon E (2005). Eucalyptus agroforestry system for small farms: 2-year experiment with rice and beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil. New Forests 29:261-272.


Chanie T (2009). The effect of Eucalyptus on crop productivity, and soil properties in the Koga Watershed, Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University 60 p.


Chanie T, Collick AS, Adgo E, Lehmann CJ, Steenhuis TS (2013). Eco-hydrological impacts of Eucalyptus in the semi humid Ethiopian Highlands: the Lake Tana Plain. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics 61(1):21-29.


Cordero-Rivera A, Álvarez AM, Álvarez M (2017). Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 40(1):87-97.


Dejam M, Khaleghi SS, Ataollahi R (2014). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus Globulus Labill. on seed germination and seedling growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences 3(1): 81-86.


Ethiopian Forestry Action Program (EFAP) (1994). Ethiopian Forestry Action Program: The challenge for development. Final Report, Volume II, Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Projection, Addis Ababa.


El-Darier SM (2002). Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus rostrata on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Metabolite Accumulation of Vicia faba L. and Zea mays L. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5(1): 6-11.


ENEC/CESEN (1986). Main Report (plus 13 technical reports and 26 supplementary reports).


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1988). The Eucalypt Dilemma. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009). Eucalyptus in East Africa: The Socio-economic and environmental issues. FAO Sub-regional Office Eastern Africa March 2009, Addis Ababa 46 p.


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2011). Eucalyptus in East Africa, Socio-economic and environmental issues, by Gessesse Dessie, Teklu Erkossa. Planted Forests and Trees Working Paper 46/E, Forest Management Team, Forest Management Division. FAO, Rome (unpublished) 42 p.


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2017). Agroforestry for landscape Restoration: Exploring the potential of agroforestry to enhance the sustainability and resilience of degraded landscapes. Rome 28 p.


Fetene M, Beck E (2004). Water relations of indigenous versus exotic tree species, growing at the same site in a tropical montane forest in southern Ethiopia. Trees 18:428-435.


Fikreyesus S, Kebebew Z, Nebiyu A, Zeleke N , Bogale S (2011). Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. on Germination and Growth of Tomato. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 11(5):600-608.


Friis I (1995). Myrtaceae. In Edwards S, Mesfin T, Hedberg I. Editors. Flora of Ethiopia, Eritria 2(2). Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Gebrehiwot M (2013). Recent Transitions in Ethiopian Homegarden Agroforestry: Driving Forces and Changing Gender Relations. Faculty of Forest Sciences Department of Forest Resource Management. Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 53 p.


Gindaba J (2003). Water and nutrient relations of selected tree species of Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. 190 p.


Gonsalves L, Law B, Blakey R (2018). Experimental evaluation of the initial effects of large-scale thinning on structure and biodiversity of river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests. Wildlife Research 45:397-410.


Global Panel on Agriculture, Food Systems for Nutrition (GPAFSN) (2016). Food Systems and Diets: Facing the Challenges of the 21st Century (London).


International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES) (2016). From Uniformity to Diversity: A Paradigm Shift from Industrial Agriculture to Diversified Agro-ecological Systems.


Jagger P, Pender J (2000). The role of trees for sustainable management of less-favored lands: the case of Eucalyptus in Ethiopia. EPTD discussion paper no. 65. Washington, D.C. 20006 USA 91 p.


Jaleta D, Mbilinyi B, Mahoo H, Lemenih M (2016). Evaluation of Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Eucalyptus Expansion in Meja Watershed, Ethiopia. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 7(3):1-12.


Jaleta D, Mbilinyi BP, Mahoo HF, Lemenih M (2017). Effect of Eucalyptus expansion on surface runoff in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Ecological Processes 6(1):1-8.


Jouquet P, Bernared-Reversat F, Botticelli N, Orange D, Rouland-Lefervre C, Tran Duc T, Podwojewski P (2007). Influence of Changes in Land Use and Earthworm Activities on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in a Steep Land Ecosystem in Northern Vietnam. Vietnam. 44: 69-77.


Kebebew Z, Ayele G (2010). Profitability and Household income Contribution of Growing Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) to smallholder Farmers: The Case of Central Highland of Oromia, Ethiopia. European Journal of Applied Science 2:25-29.


Kenya Forest Service (2009). A Guide to On-Farm Eucalyptus Growing in Kenya. Eucalyptus in East Africa: The Socio-economic and Environmental Issues. FAO Sub-regional Office Eastern Africa March 2009, Addis Ababa 46 p.


Kidanu S, Mamo T, Stroosnijder L (2005). Biomass production of Eucalyptus boundary plantations and their effect on crop productivity on Ethiopian highland Vertisols. Agroforestry Forum 63:281-290.


Kidanu S (2004). Using Eucalyptus for Soil and Water Conservation on the Highland Vertisols of Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University and Research Center, Wageningen).


Laclau P (2003). Biomass and C sequestration of ponderosa pine plantations and native cypress forests in northwest Patagonia. Forest Ecology and Management 180:317-333.


Lemenih M, Teketay D (2004). Restoration of Native Forest Flora in the Degraded High Lands of Ethiopia: Constraints and opportunities. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 27:75-90.


Lemenih M, Olsson M, Karltun E (2004). Comparison of soil attributes under Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus saligna established on abandoned farmlands with continuously cropped farmlands and NF in Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 195:57-67.


Lemma B (2006). Impact of exotic tree plantations on carbon and nutrient dynamics in abandoned farmland soils of southwestern Ethiopia. Doctor's dissertation Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala 42 p.


Lemma B, Kleja DB, Nilsson I, Olsson M (2006). Soil carbon sequestration under different exotic tree species in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma 136:886-898.


Lundgren BO, Raintree JB (1982). Sustained agroforestry. In: Nestel B, ed. Agricultural research for development: potentials and challenges in Asia, The Hague, the Netherlands, ISNAR pp. 37-49.


Maitima J, Reid RS, Louis GN (2004). The Linkage between land use, land degradation and biodiversity across East Africa. Nairobi Kenya. (Land use change analysis as an approach for investigating biodiversity loss and land degradation.


Mekonnen Z, Kassa H, Lemenh M, Campbell B (2007). The role and management of Eucalyptus in lode hetosa district, central Ethiopia. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 17(4):309-323.


Rassaeifar M, Hosseini N, Asl NHH, Zandi P, Aghdam AM (2013). Allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus globulus' essential oil on seed germination and seedling establishment of Amaranthus blitoides and Cyndon dactylon. Trakia Journal of Sciences 11(1):73-81.


Richardson DM , Rejmanek M (2017). Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species - a global review. Diversity and Distributions (Diversity and Distrib.), Biodiversity Review 17:788-809.


Scott DF (2005). On the hydrology of industrial timber plantation. Hydrological Processes 19:4203-4206.


Senbeta F, Teketay D, Naslund BA (2002). Native woody species regeneration in exotic tree plantations at Munessa-Shashemene Forest, southern Ethiopia. New Forests 24:131-145.


Senbeta F, Teketay D (2001). Regeneration of Indigenous Woody Species under the Canopies of Tree Plantation in Central Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology 42:175-185.


Teketay D (2000b). The Ecological Effects of Eucalyptus: Guide for Making Wise and Informed Decision. In: Kinfe Abebe. (ed), The Eucalyptus Dilemma: The Socio-economic aspects of Eucalyptus, Addis Ababa pp. 1-45.


Teketay D (2000a). Facts and experience on eucalypts in Ethiopia and elsewhere: ground for making wise and informed decision. Walia 21:25-46.


Telila H, Hylander K, Nemomissa S (2015). The potential of small Eucalyptus plantations in farmscapes to foster native woody plant diversity: local and landscape constraints. Restoration Ecology 23(6):918-926.


UNDP/World Bank (1996). Ethiopia: Energy Assessment, Report No. 179/96. Washington DC.


Watson K (2004). The Effect of Eucalyptus and Oak Leaf Extracts on California Native Plants. College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley Internet document, socrates. berkeley. 


WBISPP (2005). A national strategy plan for the biomass sector. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


World Bank (1984). "Ethiopia: Issues and Options in the Energy Sector", Report, No. 4741-ET (1984), Washington, D.C.


Yirdaw E, Luukkanen O (2003). Indigenous woody species diversity in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus plantations in the Ethiopian highlands. Biodiversity and Conservation 12:567-582.


Yitebitu M (2010). Eucalyptus trees and the environment: a new perspective in times of climate change. In: L. Gil, W. Tadesse, E. Tolosana, & R. López (Eds.), Eucalyptus species management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia. Proceedings from the Congress held in Addis Ababa. September 15-17, 2010. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia pp. 104-113.


Yitebitu M, Zewdu E, Sisay N (2010). Ethiopian forest resources: current status and future management options in view of access to carbon finances. Prepared for the Ethiopian climate research and networking, and the United Nations development programme (UNDP), Addis Ababa, October 2010.