Property rights have been noted to increasingly play a central role in the management of land resources. This paper examines the implications of land tenure on soil conservation on the slopes of Mt Elgon, Eastern Uganda. Primary data were obtained through household surveys and field observations conducted in Tsekululu Sub County, Bubulo County, Manafwa District, Eastern Uganda between September and December 2012. The sampled parishes were stratified according to their distance from the Park boundary. SPSS (16) was used to compute descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. Check dams and gulley controls were the most common structural measures adopted by farmers in all the three sites, although, overall the level of adoption by park-adjacent communities was lower compared to distant ones, whose reluctance to invest in long term conservation techniques is attributable to the tenure insecurity, while the high adoption rate by distant communities is owed to the transferability, alienability, exclusivity and enforceability rights that secure private land. Thus, a policy environment that guarantees tenure security of park adjacent farmers could help in incentivizing investment in soil conservation. Success thereof will be achieved if the politicians, Park Authorities and local communities jointly participate in their design and implementation.
Key words: Land tenure, Mt. Elgon, soil conservation, Park adjacent communities, Uganda.
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