Journal of
Infectious Diseases and Immunity

  • Abbreviation: J. Infect. Dis. Immun.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2375
  • DOI: 10.5897/JIDI
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 83

Full Length Research Paper

Typhoid fever outbreak investigation in Ofla Woreda, Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia, 2016: An unmatched 1:2 case-control

Zerihun Degebasa Mamo
  • Zerihun Degebasa Mamo
  • Department of Public Health Emergency Management, North Shoa Zone, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Aselefech Addisu
  • Aselefech Addisu
  • Ethiopian Field Epidemiology Training Program, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Taklu Marama
  • Taklu Marama
  • Department of Midwifery, College Health sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 03 December 2017
  •  Accepted: 19 March 2018
  •  Published: 30 June 2018


Admasu A, Kiros M, Memhur A (2011). Baseline survey of Ofla Woreda of Tigray Region. In: implementation NWfw, editor. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia.


Akullian A, Ng'eno E, Matheson AI, Cosmas L, Macharia D, Fields B, Bigogo G, Mugoh M, John-Stewart G, Walson JL, Wakefield J (2015). "Environmental Transmission of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Slum,kenya." PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 9(12):e0004212.


Alberta Health (2014). Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines. Typhoid fever. Available at: 



Baddam R, Kumar N, Thong KL, Ngoi ST, Teh CS, Yap KP, Chai LC, Avasthi TS, Ahmed N (2012). "Genetic fine structure of salmonella enterica serovar typhi strain associated with 2005 outbreak of typhoid fever in kelantan,Malaysia." J Bacteriology. 194(13):3565-3566.


Blum LS, Dentz H, Chingoli F, Chilima B, Warne T, Lee C, Hyde T, Gindler J, Sejvar J, Mintz ED (2014). "Formative Investigation of Acceptability of Typhoid Vaccine during a Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Neno District, Malawi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91(4):729-737.


Buckle GC, Walker CLF, Black RE (2012). Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: Systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010. J. Glob. Health 2(1).


Central Statistical Agency [Ethiopia] (August 2013). Population Projection of Ethiopia for All Regions at Wereda Level from 2014 – 2017. P. p. o. Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, central statistical Agency.


Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) (2008). Ethiopian Public Health Institute Process Implementation Manual Public Health Emergency Management Core Process. I. EPH. Addis Ababa, Federal ministry of Health.


Getnet F, Gebre-Selassie S, Alemayehu H, Tesfu Kassa T, Kebede N (2014). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Food Handlers in Addis Ababa University Students' Cafeteria, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 6:210-216.


Hendriksen RS, Leekitcharoenphon P, Lukjancenko O, Lukwesa-Musyani C, Tambatamba B, Mwaba J, Kalonda A, Nakazwe R, Kwenda G, Jensen JD, Svendsen CA (2015)."Genomic signature of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates related to a massive outbreak in Zambia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 53:262-272.


Imanishi M, Kweza PF, Slayton RB, Urayai T, Ziro O, Mushayi W, Francis-Chizororo M, Kuonza LR, Ayers T, Freeman MM, Govore E (2014)."Household Water Treatment Uptake during a Public Health Response to a Large Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe." Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90(5):945-997.


Katz JD, Cruz AM,Trepka M, Suarez A, Fiorella P, Hammond R (2002). An Outbreak of Typhoid Fever in Florida Associated with an Imported Frozen Fruit. J. Infect. Dis.186:234-239.


Kifelew LG, Wondafrash N, Feleke A (2014). Identification of drug-resistant Salmonella from food handlers at the University of Gondar,Ethiopia. BMC Res. Notes 7(1):545.


Muti M, Gombe N, Tshimanga M, Takundwa L, Bangure D, Mungofa S, Chonzi P (2014). Typhoid outbreak investigation in Dzivaresekwa, suburb of Harare City, Zimbabwe, Pan Afr. Med. J.18:309.


Ofla woreda Health Office. (2016). e-HMIS and comprehensive annual report of the health office P. office.


Parry CM, Dougan G, White NJ, Farrar JJ (2002). Typhoid fever. N Engl. J. Med. 347:1770-1782. Available at: 


Polonsky JA, Martínez-Pino I, Nackers F, Chonzi P, Manangazira P, Van Herp M, Maes P, Porten K, Luquero FJ (2014). Descriptive epidemiology of typhoid fever during an epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, PLoS One. 2014 Dec 8;9(12):e114702.


Samuel K (2008). Typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges of diagnosis and management of infections. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 2(6):443-447.


Sejvar J, Lutterloh E, Naiene J, Likaka A, Manda R, Nygren B, Monroe S, Khaila T, Lowther SA, Capewell L, Date K (2012). "Neurologic Manifestations Associated with an Outbreak of Typhoid Fever, Malawi -Mozambique, 2009: An Epidemiologic Investigation." PLoS One 7(12):e46099.


Slayton R, Date K, Mintz E (2013). Vaccination for typhoid fever in Sub-Saharan Africa. Landes Bioscience. 9(4):903-906.


Tadesse G (2014). Prevalence of human Salmonellosis in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect. Dis. 14(1):88.


Tsega N, Sahile S, Kibret M, Abera B (2013). Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking watersources in a rural community of Ethiopia. Afr. Health Sci. 13(4):1156-1161.


Von Kalckreuth V, Konings F, Aaby P, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Ali M, Aseffa A, Baker S, Breiman RF, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Clemens JD, Crump JA (2016). The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies." Clin. Infect. Dis. 62(S1):S9-16.


World Health Organization (WHO) (2011). Guidelines for the Management of Typhoid Fever. H. Aid. Zimbabwe, European Commission.