Journal of
Microbiology and Antimicrobials

  • Abbreviation: J. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2308
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMA
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 166

Full Length Research Paper

Urinary tract infections at a Nigerian university hospital: Causes, patterns and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

Jombo GTA1*, Emanghe UE2, Amefule EN2 and Damen JG3
  1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, P. M. B. 102119 Makurdi, Nigeria. 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, PMB 2084 Jos, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 30 April 2011
  •  Published: 30 June 2011



Treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is becoming difficult due to the increasing trend of antibiotics resistance and this may necessitate an up to date knowledge of resistance pattern. This study was therefore set up to ascertain bacterial resistance patterns from UTIs at a University hospital. The study was retrospective in nature. Data generated from urine cultures of patients at the University of Calabar Teaching hospital for a period of five years (2004 to 2009) were compiled. Relevant information obtained were age and gender of patients, organisms recovered and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The incidence of UTI was found to be 7.7% (565/7,348) comprising of 264 (46.7%) males and 53.3% (301) females (P>0.05); 391 (69.2%) were of community acquired (CA) while 174 (30.8%) were nosocomial (NC) in origin. Infections were significantly lower among those aged below 20 years (P<0.05). The commonest bacteria recovered were Escherichia coli 18.6% (109), Klebsiella pneumoniae14.8% (87), Proteus species 13.1% (77) and Staphylococcus aureus 10.7% (63). Penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, cloxacillin were among the most inactive drugs while ofloxacin, clavulanate + amoxycilline, ceftriaxone, colistin and cefuroxime were among the most active with sensitivity of CA isolates generally higher than the NC ones. Rationality should be applied in antibiotics prescription, consumptions and prophylaxis. Hospitals should adopt strict infection control methods; also the use of antibiotics in agricultural, veterinary and pharmaceutical activities should be regulated in order to halt or reverse this growing resistance trend.


Key words: Antibiotics, infections, susceptibility, urinary tract.