Investigation on the prevalence of infections with schistosoma was carried out amongst inhabitants of two local government areas (LGAs), Nigeria between October 2007 and September 2008. A total of 2064 randomly selected subjects had their urine and stool samples examined for eggs of Schistosoma and 323 (15.7%) were excreting eggs of S. haematobium in their urine with geometric mean egg count (GMEC) of 10.1 eggs/10 ml of urine. No eggs of S. mansoni were found. Prevalence of infection varied between 12.8 and 19.8% between the LGAs, but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Prevalence also varied significantly between the age groups (P<0.05) with peak occurring among persons aged 11 to 20 years and decreased thereafter. There was a close association between haematuria and the presence of eggs of S. haematobium in the urine (P<0.05). People that tested positive for schistosomiasis were 26.4 times at greater risk (P<0.001) of haematuria as compared to those who tested negative. The result indicated 83.1% sensitivity and a specificity of 91.4%. Farmers (OR=2.31; P<0.05) were significantly at greater risk of schistosomiasis infection as compared to the artisans. The importance of these findings and their implications for control of the disease in Anambra State are discussed.
Key words: Schistosomiasis, endemicity, Anambra State.
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