This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potentials of leaf extracts of Zea mays (maize) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) with a view of utilizing them as herbal tea on the management and treatment of oxidant and inflammatory disorders. The powdered plant materials: (Z. mays, (30 g), S. bicolor (30 g), mixture (15 g of Z. mays + 15 g of S. bicolor) were soaked separately in 80% (v/v) ethanol, in sealed containers at room temperature (25 ± 1°C) for seven days with frequent stirring. The suspensions were filtered using double-layered cotton material. The filtrate was evaporated at 40°C under reduced pressure in Rotary Evaporator (BuchiRotavapor RII coupled to a Butchi Vacuum Pump V-700). The extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and the antioxidant constituents of the extracts were also quantified. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were investigated using two different mechanisms: the scavenging of DPPH radical and iron reduction Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were assessed using three models: inhibition of heat-induced haemolysis, inhibition of albumin denaturation and the membrane stabilizing potentials of the extracts. The results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of Z. mays, S. bicolor and the mixture of both contained appreciable quantities of antioxidant constituents. The ethanolic extract of S. bicolor contain the highest quantities of phytoconstituents: phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C and E. The ethanolic extract of Z. mays, S. bicolor and the mixture scavenged DPPH radical maximally at 42, 38 and 36% respectively and the reducing power concentrations of Z. mays, S. bicolor and the mixture were 289.94 ± 18.1 µg/ml, 253.071 ±18.91 µg/ml, and 286.81 ± 20.49 µg/ml respectively. The results of the membrane stabilizing activities revealed the order of stability as Z. mays >S. bicolor > mixture. The percentage inhibition of heat-induced heamolytic activities of Z. mays, S. bicolor and the mixture was 21.0, 19.7, and 82.2%, respectively. The order of inhibition of albumin denaturation of the extract was Mixture >S. bicolor > Z. mays. The ethanolic extract of Z. mays showed the highest antioxidant potential while that of the mixture demonstrated the highest anti-inflammatory potentials. Z. mays, S. bicolor and the mixture elicited potent and appreciable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.
Key words: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, phytochemicals, ethanolic extract.
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