Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3707

Full Length Research Paper

Hydroethanolic stem bark extract of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) suppresses yeast-induced pyrexia and Plasmodium berghei malaria in murine models

Anna Kwarley Quartey
  • Anna Kwarley Quartey
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Accra, Ghana.
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Yakubu Jibira
  • Yakubu Jibira
  • Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.
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Arnold Forkuo-Donkor
  • Arnold Forkuo-Donkor
  • Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.
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Isaac Ayensu
  • Isaac Ayensu
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.
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Adwoa Agyakoma Oduro-Kwarteng
  • Adwoa Agyakoma Oduro-Kwarteng
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Accra, Ghana.
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Sussana Emi-Reynolds Asuamah
  • Sussana Emi-Reynolds Asuamah
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Accra, Ghana.
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Patience Noah
  • Patience Noah
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Central University, Accra, Ghana.
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  •  Received: 20 February 2020
  •  Accepted: 21 April 2020
  •  Published: 30 June 2020

Abstract

Vernonia amygdalina has been widely utilized in Ghana and other West African states for numerous parasitic infections, diabetes and some inflammatory conditions. In this study we evaluated the antipyretic and antimalarial properties as well as in vitro antioxidant activities of an ethanolic stem bark extract of V. amygdalina (VAE). The antipyretic effect of VAE was assessed using Baker’s yeast-induced pyrexia and the antimalarial activities of plant extract against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice in the Peters 4-day suppressive test. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extract were determined by DPPH radical scavenging and total phenol content assay. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methods. V. amygdalina (100-600 mg kg-1) dose related decreased the Baker’s yeast-induced fever in young rats. Also, it exhibited a significant (F (5, 24) = 91.35, P < 0.0001) anti-plasmodial activity in the mouse model. It caused a percentage suppression of 81.80 ± 3.76 at 600 mg kg-1and a relative antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with an IC50 of 146.4 ± 2.31 µgml-1 and a total phenol content of 345.7 ± 4.56 mg g-1 of gallic acid equivalence. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that the extract contained tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids. V. amygdalina hydroethanolic stem bark extract evoked promising antipyretic, anti-plasmodial and antioxidant effects.

Key words: Vernonia amygdalina, pyrexia, malaria, antioxidants, Baker’s Yeast, Plasmodium berghei.