A study was done to document different plants and their use for primary health care by communities around the Miombo woodland of Urumwa, Tanzania. Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and discussion with key stakeholders. G-tests were carried out to seek differences in ethnobotanical knowledge between women and men. 110 plant species were documented to have 74 medicinal uses. Men were found to be ethnobotanically knowledgeable than women. The ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plant resources at Urumwa need to be recognized and preserved to ensure future effectiveness of the primary health care system. Due to the global interest in medicinal plants, there is a need to carry out phytochemical and pharmacological studies for most unstudied but potential documented species to validate usage, find new pharmaceuticals, increase confidence among users and contribute to the developlent of the traditional medicine sector in Tanzania and other areas in Africa within the Miombo ecoregion.
Key words: Medicinal plants, ethnobotany, gender, Urumwa, Tanzania.
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