Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3702

Full Length Research Paper

Influence of extraction method on antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum L.

Lenise de Lima Silva
  • Lenise de Lima Silva
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Clarissa Giesel Heldwein
  • Clarissa Giesel Heldwein
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Luiz Gustavo Brenner Reetz
  • Luiz Gustavo Brenner Reetz
  • Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Rosmari Hörner
  • Rosmari Hörner
  • Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Diogo Pompéu de Moraes
  • Diogo Pompéu de Moraes
  • Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Fábio Andrei Duarte
  • Fábio Andrei Duarte
  • Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Érico Marlon de Moraes Flores
  • Érico Marlon de Moraes Flores
  • Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Renato Zanella
  • Renato Zanella
  • Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Ana Maria Soares Pereira
  • Ana Maria Soares Pereira
  • Unidade de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
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Berta Maria Heinzmann*
  • Berta Maria Heinzmann*
  • 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 03 February 2014
  •  Accepted: 31 March 2014
  •  Published: 17 February 2015

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define whether novel extraction methods such as microwave and ultrasound could obtain the most effective ethanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum as antibacterial agents. These extracts were compared with respect to extractive yield, eugenol content, antibacterial activity and brine-shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity with extracts obtained by the classical procedures of maceration and Soxhlet. Significant differences among the extracts were observed in all analyses. Soxhlet extraction gave the highest yield (19.5%). Maceration and microwave extracts yielded the highest eugenol contents (11.6 and 11.8%, respectively). The bactericidal activity of the extracts was correlated with eugenol content (rs = 0.894). Maceration gave the extract with the broadest spectrum of activity. Ultrasound methods yielded an efficient extract for use as a topical antiseptic (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.66 to 1.32 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)). The most active extracts to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections were obtained by Soxhlet  and microwave (MIC = 5.28 mg/ml). The extract obtained by maceration was the most toxic for brine shrimp, followed by the extracts obtained by ultrasonic horn, ultrasonic cleaning bath and Soxhlet /microwave. In conclusion, the antibacterial results showed that the extractive methodology can be chosen according to the intended use.

 

Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic cleaning bath (UCB), ultrasonic horn (UH), antibacterial activity, toxicity, Artemia salina.