Candida infections are frequently associated with biofilm formation occurring on the surfaces of host tissues and medical devices. Biofilms have been shown to display significantly increased levels of resistance to the conventional antifungal agents. Higher cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) is related with increased virulence of C. albicans due to stronger adherence to surfaces. Cloves, the aromatic dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, and their oil have been widely used for medicinal purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the anticandidal potential of the S. aromaticum ethyl acetate extract by evaluating biofilm formation, CSH, and cell cycle of C. albicans. The growth and development of the biofilm was assessed using an XTT reduction assay, and the extract remarkably reduced (27.7 ± 14.0%) biofilm formation of the clinical strains. It significantly lowered CSH (61.1 ± 15.0%) as well. Moreover, the extract arrested the fungus cells at the Go/G1 and S phase. The S. aromaticum extract displayed fungistatic activity without any hemolytic activity. Based on the combined results of this study, S. aromaticum holds great promise for use in treating and eliminating biofilm-associated Candida infection.
Key words: Antifungal activity, biofilm, Candida albicans, cell cycle, cell surface hydrophobicity, Syzygium aromaticum.
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