Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3654

Full Length Research Paper

Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and antiparasitic properties of the essential oils of three plants used in traditional medicine in Benin.

Didier Kpadonou
  • Didier Kpadonou
  • Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Salomé Kpoviessi
  • Salomé Kpoviessi
  • Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Joanne Bero
  • Joanne Bero
  • Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Pierre Agbani
  • Pierre Agbani
  • Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA), Faculty of Agronomic Sciences (FSA), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 03 BP: 1974 Cotonou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Fernand Gbaguidi
  • Fernand Gbaguidi
  • Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Bénédicta Kpadonou-Kpoviessi
  • Bénédicta Kpadonou-Kpoviessi
  • Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Brice Sinsin
  • Brice Sinsin
  • Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA), Faculty of Agronomic Sciences (FSA), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 03 BP: 1974 Cotonou, Benin.
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Michel Frédérich
  • Michel Frédérich
  • Université de Liège, Drug Research Center, Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Av. de l’Hôpital 1, B36, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.
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Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
  • Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
  • Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E. Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
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  •  Received: 23 May 2019
  •  Accepted: 08 August 2019
  •  Published: 30 September 2019

Abstract

Sclerocarya birrea (Sb), Psidium guajava (Pg) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec) are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, some of which were related to oxidative stress and parasitic diseases. Their essential oils (EO) were analyzed by GC/MS and FID and tested in vitro for their antioxidant activities (DPPH), their anti-trypanosomal and anti-plasmodial activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) (strain 427) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) (strain 3D7), respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against CHO and WI38 cells (MTT) to evaluate the selectivity. They were shown to possess low antioxidant but a strong anti-trypanosomal and a good antiplasmodial activity with a good selectivity, except Ec oil whose anti-plasmodial activity was less interesting. Sb oil was the most active against Tbb(IC50 = 0.46 ± 0.28 µg/ml) and Pf (5.21 ± 1.12 µg/ml). All tested oils had low or no cytotoxicity against CHO and WI38 cells. GC/MS and GC/FID analysis revealed that composition of Sb (49 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of 7-epi-α-selinene, α-muurolene and valencene; Pg (60 compounds) by β-bisabolene, ar-curcumene and β-bisabolol; Ec (43 compounds) by γ-terpinene and p-cymene. The activity of these oils seems to be the result of a synergistic action of all their constituents, including minor ones. This study shows that essential oils of Sb and Pg can be good sources of anti-trypanosomal and anti-plasmodial agents.

Key words: Essential oil, S. birrea, P. guajava, E. camaldulensis, antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, antioxidant.

 

Abbreviation

Sb: Sclerocarya birrea, Pg: Psidium guajava, Ec: Eucalyptus camaldulensis.