Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3715

Full Length Research Paper

Ethnomedical survey of plants used for the management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions in Mbulu District, Tanzania

Alphonce Ignace Marealle
  • Alphonce Ignace Marealle
  • Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65013, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Mainen Moshi
  • Mainen Moshi
  • Department of Biological and Pre-clinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Ester Innocent
  • Ester Innocent
  • Department of Biological and Pre-clinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Michael Qwarse
  • Michael Qwarse
  • Department of Natural Products Development and Formulations, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
  • Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
  • Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Garborone, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 09 September 2020
  •  Accepted: 08 December 2020
  •  Published: 31 January 2021

 ABSTRACT

The aim of this Study was to document medicinal plants used in the management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions in Mbulu District. An ethnomedical survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The main HIV and AIDS-related conditions considered during this study were; cough, frequent fevers, diarrhea, weight loss, oral thrush, genital warts, candidiasis, abscesses, skin rashes, shingles and venereal diseases. Literature survey was also carried out to compile supplementary data on ethnomedical used and pharmacological activities of the respective plants. Thirty seven plant species from 23 families were reported. The plant families with the highest number of documented species were Acanthaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Compositae and Verbanaceae with three species each. Literature information on the 37 reported plant species showed that, 23 plants could be linked to supporting data on ethnomedical uses, 23 were related to biological activity and 12 had been reported to display varying activities against HIV-1. Sixteen identified medicinal plants recorded new ethnomedical uses related to HIV and AIDS-related conditions, while 8 and 16% of the plant species did not have any previously reported ethnomedical uses or pharmacological activities, respectively.

Key words: Medicinal plants, indigenous knowledge, HIV and AIDS-related conditions.


 INTRODUCTION

Due  to  advances  in  the  development  of  highly  active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV/AIDS  has  become a manageable chronic condition. However, HIV infection is still a disease of public health concern which in 2018 accounted for 770 000 deaths globally (WHO, 2018). Among reported worldwide HIV cases, more than 70% are from Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, the prevalence of HIV is about 5.1%  and in 2017 it was estimated that 1.5 million people were living with HIV, 65 000 new infections were reported and a total of 32 000 AIDS-related deaths occurred (NBS, 2017; WHO, 2018).

The prevalence of HIV in Tanzania by regions ranges from 0% in some areas of Unguja and Pemba to 11.4% in Njombe region (NBS, 2017). Manyara Region is currently among regions with low prevalence of HIV in Tanzania mainland. However, in 2002, Manyara Region was among the two regions with the highest prevalence of HIV based on prevalence estimated among blood donors (Tanzania, 2002). At that time, the highest prevalence was noted in Kagera (18.6%), followed closely by Manyara (17.5%) and Iringa (14.1%) regions. In the same year, the prevalence among females by region was highest in Manyara (19.8%), followed by Dar es Salaam (18.9%) and Iringa (18.4%) (Tanzania, 2002). However, currently the prevalence of HIV in Manyara Region is significantly lower than the national HIV prevalence with the most recent prevalence of 1.5 % as per 2011-2012 HIV impact survey and 2.3% as per 2016-2017 HIV impact survey (NBS, 2017; Tanzania, 2011).

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about three quarter of the population in some African countries still relies on medicinal plants for their primary health care (WHO, 2008). The great biodiversity in sub-Sahara Africa has provided the indigenous people with a range of plants that are used for traditional medicinal purposes. Mbulu District in Manyara Region is inhabited by people of different tribes, particularly Iraqw’, Datooga  and Hadzabe with reported use of herbal medicines for treatment and management of their health challenges (Patel and Mwamhanga, 2014; Qwarse et al., 2018). The Hadzabe are hunter-gatherers who live in the eastern rift valley in Northern Tanzania and for most of the time they have relied on natural resources (Marlowe, 2002). This remote area with poor infrastructure has not been extensively reached for the inventory of medicinal plants. The rural community is almost totally dependent on traditional medicine for their health care needs. It is therefore, reasonable to speculate that the use of alternative health seeking and coping strategies in Mbulu, including the use of herbal therapies, may have contributed to the progressive reduction of HIV/AIDS prevalence.

Despite the huge biodiversity and the history of use of medicinal plants in Manyara Region, to the best of our knowledge, no study has documented plants used for the management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify medicinal plants used for the management of HIV and AIDS-related  conditions  and  to  compile  supplementary data on ethnomedical used and pharmacological activities of respective plants.


 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

Mbulu District is one amongst the six districts in Manyara Region, northeastern Tanzania (Figure 1), with an estimated population of 320 279, according to the latest  Tanzania National Census of 2012 (NBS, 2013). The district is bordered to the north by the Arusha region and lake Eyasi, to the east by the Babati rural district, to the south by the Hanang district, and to the west by the Singida region. People of different ethnicities inhabit this district, particularly Iraqw’ (also called the Wambulu) one of the earliest agro-pastoralists who migrated south from the region of Ethiopia to Tanzania. The other indigenous ethnic groups are the Hadzabe, living in Yaeda chini and the Datooga people. Local inhabitants engage mainly in agriculture, livestock keeping, farming activities and hunting. There are plantations of onions and wheat in many places of Manyara region which attract many business people from across the country and from neighboring countries. Seasonal open markets for livestock and the presence of the Haydom Lutheran hospital, which provides specialized medical care are among factors that attract people from other parts of the region and the country to visit the district.

Study design

This was a qualitative ethnomedical survey conducted in May 2019. This study design was selected as it offers opportunity for a homogeneous exploration, raise more issues through broad and open-ended inquiry (Choy, 2014). The study employed a purposive sampling method in which selection of respondents only included THPs recognized by Health authorities in the office of Mbulu District Medical Officer (DMO). This was important to reduce the likelihood of interacting with fake or inexperienced THPs. Acknowledging the contribution of THPs in health care provision in Tanzania, the Ministry responsible for health is currently advocating registration of THPs through the offices of DMOs all over the country. The legitimacy of a THP is checked well before he/she is registered through the involvement of witnesses like neighbors, village and ward officials where the THP resides or has been practicing. During the conduct of this study, the coordinator from the office of the DMO responsible for the registration of THPs was engaged to locate the THPs, and kindly offered translation services when it was required.

Data collection

The study employed face-to-face interviews to document ethnomedical information about plants used for management of selected disease conditions mainly HIV and AIDS-related conditions using a semi-structured questionnaire. A narrative of symptoms helped in listing plants used by the THPs to treat HIV/AIDS-related conditions. The first sections of the questionnaire sought to gather demographic information about the THPs, and the conditions that the THPs are confident of treating/managing. The other sections aimed at documenting plants that are used to manage conditions/symptoms of HIV and AIDS-related diseases including; tuberculosis, Herpes zoster infection (commonly known as “mkanda wa jeshi” in Kiswahili and characterized by a pruritic rash around the chest or stomach), persistent cough, cough associated with chest pain, skin rashes, frequent fevers, chronic diarrhea, chronic wounds, genital warts and wasting.

Other conditions/symptoms probed were oral candidiasis/oral thrush, which the THPs recognize as “Utando wa mdomoni” in Kiswahili language and vaginal candidiasis. Other information solicited by the questionnaire included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatment and side effects. The study also considered and documented plants used for treatment of pneumonia (presented in Kiswahili language by the THPs as “Kichomi”).

Collection of voucher specimen of the listed plant species was done with the THPs and a botanist, Mr Selemani Haji, of the Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam to avoid misidentification. The voucher specimens are kept in the Herbaria of the Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) and Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania.

Literature survey to support medicinal plant uses

Literature information on the collected medicinal plant species was compiled using different search engines including Google Scholar, Pubmed/Medline, Research Gate and Hinari. The plant’s name was used in combination with different keywords such as, ethnomedical, ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, HIV, AIDS, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-HIV, tuberculosis, Herpes zoster, oral candidiasis, sexually transmitted infections, cough, skin rashes, fevers, diarrhea, wounds, warts, oral thrush, weight loss, vaginal candidiasis etc. In this review, only articles written in English language were considered. The review covered the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature from 1989 to 2019.

Data analysis

Data were entered into Excel spreadsheet and summarized using descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics were applied to identify the number and percentage of species, genera and families of medicinal plants. They were also applied to identify the percentage distribution of plant parts used and diseases treated by the identified medicinal plants. The graphs were plotted by GraphPad prism software version 8.

Ethical approval and consent to participate

This study was awarded Ethical clearance by the MUHAS institutional review board (Ethical clearance No. 2018-04-04/AEC/Vol. XII/87; Dated, 4th April 2018).  Permission to conduct the study in Mbulu District was sought from all government authorities from the district to village level. All THPs gave prior informed consent before they were interviewed.


 RESULTS

Socio-demographic characteristics of the THPs

The study interviewed six THPs from Mbulu District. Four of them were males and two were females. Six different wards of Mbulu District were visited for the survey including Gidhim, Labay, Endamilay, Masqaroda, Yaeda chini and Haydom. The wards were chosen purposively based on the availability of THPs recognized by the coordinators  from   the   office   of  DMO  responsible  for handling matters related to THPs. The average age of the THPs interviewed was 61.3 ranging from 45 to 75 years. The average training time and experience of the study participants was 12.2 and 22.5 years respectively. Four of the six THPs reported to have gained their knowledge of traditional medicines from their parents and the remaining two reported to have learned from their fellow THPs and other people with previous knowledge on traditional medicines. Four of the THPs had an apprentice under them. The average number of patients attended by these THPs per month was 101 ranging from 4 to 360 patients. Five THPs reported to be attending patients coming from all over Tanzania. Details are summarized in Table 1.

General conditions treated by THPs

THPs are diverse in their professional skills and are sometimes specialized. In order to gain an insight in the overall expertise all THPs participating in this study were asked to mention disease conditions which they generally treat. All six interviewed THPs reported to be able to treat at least one type of cancer. The majority stated also being capable of treating other conditions including gonorrhea 5(83%), typhoid fever 5(83%) and syphilis 4 (67%).

HIV and AIDS-related conditions encountered by THPs

Most of the interviewed THPs were aware of the common symptoms of HIV related conditions including tuberculosis and candidiasis. The THPs reported that they often encounter several common symptoms of HIV/AIDS-related conditions including persistent cough (50%), cough and chest pain (66.7%), frequent fevers (66.7%), diarrhea (66.7%), skin rashes (66.7%), oral thrush (66.7%), genital warts (66.7%) and vaginal candidiasis (83.3%). However, patients complaining of weight loss were rarely attended by these THPs (16.7%).

Medicinal plant species documented

This study documented 37 plant species used in Mbulu for the management of a variety of human disease conditions, majority of which (81%) were for management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions (Figure 1). The plants represent 23 families and the families with the highest number of species documented were Acanthaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Compositae and Verbenaceae with 3 species each (Figure 2).

Out of the 37 reported plant species, 23 (62%) had related cited ethnomedical uses, 23 (62%) had scientifically proven related cited biological activity and 12 (32%)  had  been  reported   to   have   varying   activities against HIV-1 (Table 2), while 8 and 16% species did not have any previously reported ethnomedical uses or pharmacological activities, respectively. About 44% of the plant species recorded new ethnomedicinal uses related to HIV and AIDS-related conditions. Some of these plants include Conyza pyrrhopappa Sch. Bip. ex A.Rich for persistent cough, Croton megalocarpus Hutch for candidiasis, Croton cheffleri Pax for cough and STIs, Embelia schimperi Vatke for HIV and STIs, Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman for genital warts, candidiasis, tuberculosis and STIs, Hymenodictyon floribundum (Hochst. & Steud.) B.I.Rob for vaginal candidiasis, Justia subsessilis Oliv for STIs, Balanites aegyptica (L.) Delile for chronic wounds, Ozoroa insignis Delile for gonorrhea and Teclea simpliformis Thonn for diarrhea.

Plant part used, dosage forms and routes of administration

The most frequently used plant parts by the  THPs were roots (58.1%) whereby 37.2% use root barks and 20.9% reported to use whole roots. The other plant part used is stem bark (23.3%) followed by leaves (11.6%) (Figure 3). The main method of preparation used by the THPs was decoction (52%), followed by dry powder (38.1%) (Figure 4).The methods of drug administration were oral application (81.1%) and topical application, mainly used for wounds and other skin infections (19.9%).

Disease conditions treated by the plants

More than 20 different disease conditions are treated with the documented 37 plant species, including gonorrhea (35%), syphilis (35%), cough (30%), chronic wounds (30%) and oral candidiasis (24%), (Figure 5). Fifty nine percent (59%) of the reported plant species were indicated for more than one conditions; Elaeodendron buchananii (Engl) Verdc and Embelia schimperi Vatke were indicated    for     five     conditions,    Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl was indicated for six conditions, Ozoroa insignis Delile and Croton scheffleri Pax were indicated for eight conditions, Ximenia americana L, Ximenia caffra Sond. and Zanha africana (Radlk) Exell were indicated for ten conditions and Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman was indicated for twelve conditions.


 DISCUSSION

The study reports 37 plant species which are used in the management of various conditions related to HIV/AIDS, of which 12 (32%) are previously reported to have anti-HIV activity, including Balanites aegyptica (L.) Delile, Barleria eranthemoides R.Br. ex C.B.Clarke, Cassia abbreviata subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Lippia javanica L, Pappea capensis Eckl & Zeyh, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Plumbago zeylanica L, Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC, Warburgia ugandensis  Sprague,  Ximenia  Americana  L and Ximenia caffra Sond (Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011; Kapewangolo et al., 2013; Leteane et al., 2012; Maregesi et al., 2010; Maroyi, 2014; Mohammed et al., 2012; Mujovo et al., 2008; Mulaudzi et al., 2011; Rukunga et al., 2002; Tshikalange et al., 2008). The majority of the plants with reported anti-HIV activity were not collected from Tanzania. Barleria eranthemoides whose methanolic extract exhibited anti-HIV activity (IC50 value 2.1 μg/ml) was collected from Bunda district in Tanzania, not too far away from the Manyara Region (Maregesi et al., 2010; Maregesi et al., 2007). Barleria eranthemoides recorded the highest anti-HIV activity of the 50 plant extracts obtained from 39 different plant species collected from Bunda district, Tanzania and tested for anti-HIV-1 activity (Maregesi et al., 2010).

C. abbreviata and Plumbago zeylanica L. were among 10 plants ethnobotanically identified in Botswana and tested by our collaborators for anti-HIV activity in recent years. Both plants were among 3 plants with the highest ability to inhibit HIV-1c (MJ4) replication as measured by p-24 antigen Elisa kit (Leteane et al., 2012). Their study revealed that C. abbreviata subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan inhibited HIV-1c in a concentration dependent manner but the activity of P. zeylanica L. was linked to its tannin content. They also tested another plant Cassia sieberiana which is in the same genus as C. abbreviata subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan and had the highest ability to inhibit HIV-1c replication among the 10 tested plants in a concentration dependent manner. During the survey in Manyara other  plants  from  the  Cassia  genus were also reported and collected which include Cassia didymobotrya and Cassia singueana. C. didymobotrya has been reported to have no anti-HIV activity as it failed to protect the MT-4 cells from HIV cytopathy measured by MTT (Cos et al., 2002). However, there are no reports on anti-HIV activity of the other plant Cassia singueana. In Mbulu, Tanzania, C. abbreviata is mixed with several other plants for treatment of diarrhea and some of these plants have been proven scientifically to have varying antimicrobial activities including anti-HIV-1 activity. These plants include Elaeodendron buchananii, Ozoroa insignis, Ximenia americana and Zanha africana. Ximenia americana has been reported to have ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication (Maroyi, 2014). Therefore, there is a need to test the individual plants and combinations to see if the combinations will have improved antimicrobial and/or anti-HIV activity.

High percentage of  the  reported  plant  species  (62%) had similar cited ethnomedical uses elsewhere and 62% have similar proven biological activities. All interviewed THPs in Mbulu reported to have ability to treat cancer and majority reported to be able to treat STIs (STIs), typhoid fever and brucellosis, diseases which are relevant in their area. Therefore, the results are indicative of how strong the THPs in Mbulu district are managing infections and cancers. This is supported by the big number of patients these THPs are receiving and attending per month. Some other reported plant species have not been screened for anti-HIV activity but some species from the same genus have been tested and found to have anti-HIV activity. A good example is Vernonia glabra, used in Mbulu for management of STIs and is confirmed to have weak antimalarial and antimicrobial activity (Frank, 2012; Kitonde et al., 2012; Ramadhani et al., 2015)but has no reports on anti-HIV activity.  However,  Vernonia  amygdalina   and  Vernonia adoensis from the same genus have been reported to have anti-HIV-1 activity (Toyang and Verpoorte, 2013). Another plant is Terminalia brownii which is used in Mbulu for treatment of pneumonia. The plant is proven to have antimicrobial activity against a big number of microorganisms (Machumi et al., 2013; Salih et al., 2017). However, the plant has not been tested for anti-HIV activity but Terminalia sericea from the same genus has been reported to have strong HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity (Tshikalange et al., 2008). Zanthoxylum chalybeum, used for various infections in Mbulu and elsewhere, has no reports on anti-HIV activity while Zanthoxylum davyi, a member of the same genus, has anti-HIV activity (Tshikalange et al., 2008). In Mbulu the plant in some cases is combined with Conyza pyrrhopappa leaves or roots for treatment of persistent cough and therefore, the plant and the combination are worthy of screening for antimicrobial, anti-HIV and antimycobacterial activity. Despite the previous reported ethnomedicinal uses of some of the reported plants, reports on clinical evaluation of the patients who were treated with these plants are lacking. To support the traditional uses of these plants clinical evaluation in patients is important.


 CONCLUSION

This survey identified sixteen medicinal plants with new ethnomedical uses related to HIV and AIDS conditions. Ten of the documented plants had no reported biological reports related to HIV and AIDS-related conditions. Reports from the literature provide a strong support to the traditional medicinal use practices of Mbulu THPs for the management of HIV and AIDS- related conditions. Although the results of this study are consistent with ethnomedical and antimicrobial data from the literature, more studies are needed to validate the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological, cytotoxicity, and active phytochemicals in the plants.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.


 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the THPs who participated in this study and shared their knowledge of the use of medicinal plants; to TRISUSTAIN project “Economic, ecological and therapeutic sustainability in the development of phytopharmaceuticals for Sub-Saharan Africa” funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, 01DG17008B) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD 57369155).



 REFERENCES

Abubakar MN, Majinda RRT (2016). GC-MS Analysis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach) and Pterocarpus angolensis (DC). Medicines 3(1):3.
Crossref

 

Adoum OA (2016). Screening of medicinal plants native to Kano & Jigawa states of northern Nigeria, using Artemia cysts (Brine Shrimp Test). American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 4:7-10.

 
 

Al Ashaal HA, Farghaly AA, Abd El Aziz MM, Ali MA (2010). Phytochemical investigation and medicinal evaluation of fixed oil of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (Balantiaceae). Journal of ethnopharmacology 127:495-501.
Crossref

 
 

Alasbahi RH, Melzig MF (2010). Plectranthus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology - Part 1. Planta medica 76:653-661.
Crossref

 
 

Alphonse N, Bigendako M, Fawcett K, Yansheng G (2010). Ethnobotanic study around Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. New York Science Journal 3:5.

 
 

Asiimwe S, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Namutebi A, Borg-Karlsson AK, Musiimenta P (2013). Ethnobotanical study of nutri-medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments among the local communities of western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 150:639-648.
Crossref

 
 

Augustino S, Gillah PR (2005). Medicinal plants in urban districts of Tanzania: plants, gender roles and sustainable use. International Forestry Review 7:44-58.
Crossref

 
 

Bitew H, Gebregergs H, Tuem KB, Yeshak MY (2019). Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment: A systematic review. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 33(2).

 
 

Bogh HO, Andreassen J, Lemmich J (1996). Anthelmintic usage of extracts of Embelia schimperi from Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50:35-42.
Crossref

 
 

Chauke MA, Shai LJ, Mogale MA, Tshisikhawe MP, Mokgotho MP (2015). Medicinal plant use of villagers in the Mopani district, Limpopo province, South Africa. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 12(3):9-26.
Crossref

 
 

Chinsembu KC (2010). An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6(1):25.
Crossref

 
 

Chinsembu KC, Hijarunguru A, Mbangu A (2015). Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Rundu, Kavango East Region, Namibia. South African Journal of Botany 100:33-42.
Crossref

 
 

Chothani DL, Vaghasiya HU (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy Reviews 5:55-62.
Crossref

 
 

Choy LT (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19:99-104.
Crossref

 
 

Chrian M, Erasto P, Otieno J (2011). Antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity effect of extracts of Hallea rubrostipulata and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Spatula DD 1(3):147-152.
Crossref

 
 

Cos P, Hermans N, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Sindambiwe JB, Witvrouw M, De Clercq E, Vanden BD, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ (2002). Antiviral activity of Rwandan medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Phytomedicine 9:62-68.
Crossref

 
 

Debebe Y, Tefera M, Mekonnen W, Abebe D, Woldekidan S, Abebe A, Belete Y, Menberu T, Belayneh B, Tesfaye B, Nasir I, Yirsaw K, Basha H, Dawit A, Debella A (2015). Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15:187.
Crossref

 
 

Deressa T, Mekonnen Y, Animut A (2010). In Vivo anti-malarial activities of Clerodendrum myricoides, Dodonea angustifolia and Aloe debrana against Plasmodium berghei. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 24(1).
Crossref

 
 

Fernandes NAF, Canelo LIN, Mendonça DD, Mendonça AD (2015). Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Extracts from Angolan Medicinal Plants.International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 7:768-776.

 
 

Frank N (2012). Evaluation of Malawian Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Vatke leaf and Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen) root extracts for antimicrobial activities. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2(11):26.

 
 

Gail H, Tarryn B, Oluwaseyi A, Denver D, Oluchi M, Charlotte VK, Joop de J, Diana G (2015). An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners to manage HIV and its related opportunistic infections in Mpoza, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 171:109-115.
Crossref

 
 

Ganapaty S, Vidyadhar K (2005). Phytoconstituents and biological activities of Vitex-a review. Journal of Natural Remedies 5:75-95.

 
 

Gebre-Mariam T, Neubert R, Schmidt PC, Wutzler P, Schmidtke M (2006). Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104:182-187.
Crossref

 
 

Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z (2009). Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124:513-521.
Crossref

 
 

Green E, Samie A, Obi CL, Bessong PO, Ndip RN (2010). Inhibitory properties of selected South African medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130:151-157.
Crossref

 
 

Hajji M, Jarraya R, Lassoued I, Masmoudi O, Damak M, Nasri M (2010). GC/MS and LC/MS analysis, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of various solvent extracts from Mirabilis jalapa tubers. Process Biochemistry 45:1486-1493.
Crossref

 
 

Hamza OJ, van den Bout-van den Beukel CJ, Matee MI, Moshi MJ, Mikx FH, Selemani HO, Mbwambo ZH, Van der Ven AJ, Verweij PE (2006). Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108:124-132.
Crossref

 
 

Hedimbi M, Chinsembu KC (2012). Ethnomedicinal study of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS-related disease conditions in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1:004-011.

 
 

Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kawahata T, Otake T, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K (1999). Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV‐1 replication and HIV‐1 protease. Phytotherapy Research 13:31-36.
Crossref

 
 

Jain P, Sharma H, Basri F, Baraik B, Kumari S, Pathak C (2014). Pharmacological Profiles of Ethno-Medicinal Plant: Plumbago zeylanica L.-A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 24:157-163.

 
 

James D, Abu E, Wurochekke A, Orji G (2007). Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ximenia americana. Journal of Medical Sciences 2:284-288.
Crossref

 
 

Jeruto P, Lukhoba C, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C (2008). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116:370-376.
Crossref

 
 

Jeyachandran R, Mahesh A, Cindrella L, Sudhakar S, Pazhanichamy K (2009). Antibacterial activity of Plumbagin and root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica 51:17-22.

 
 

Kabbashi AS (2015). Antigiardial, antiamoebic, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical of ethanolic fruits extract of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. from Sudan. World Journal Pharmaceutical Research 4:01-21.

 
 

Kambizi L, Afolayan AJ (2001). An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (njohera) in Guruve District, Zimbabwe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77:5-9.
Crossref

 
 

Kamuhabwa A, Nshimo C, de Witte P (2000). Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70:143-149.
Crossref

 
 

Kapewangolo P, Hussein AA, Meyer D (2013). Inhibition of HIV-1 enzymes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plectranthus barbatus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149:184-190.
Crossref

 
 

Karaan M, Ham C, Aithal A, Franzel S, Moombe K, Akinnifesi F, Jordaan D (2006). Baseline marketing surveys and supply chain studies for indigenous fruit markets in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia. http://repository.businessinsightz.org/handle/20.500.12018/7406

 
 

Kariuki D, Miaron J, Mugweru J, Kerubo L (2014). Antibacterial activity of five medicinal plant extracts used by the Maasai people of Kenya. International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences 2:1-6.

 
 

Karthishwaran K, Mirunalini S (2010). Therapeutic potential of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.): the Ayurvedic wonder. International Journal of Pharmacology 6:836-843.
Crossref

 
 

Kebebew M, Mohamed E (2017). Indigenous knowledge on use of medicinal plants by indigenous people of Lemo district, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Herbal Medicine 5:124-135.

 
 

Kiraithe MN, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG (2016). Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 178:266-271.
Crossref

 
 

Kisangau DP, Lyaruu HV, Hosea KM, Joseph CC (2007). Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 3:29.
Crossref

 
 

Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM (2012). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia Glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 10(1):149-157.
Crossref

 
 

Kubo I, Fukuhara K (1990). Elabunin, a new cytotoxic triterpene from an East African medicinal plant, Elaeodendron buchananii. Journal of Natural Products 53:968-971.
Crossref

 
 

Lamorde M, Tabuti JR, Obua C, Kukunda-Byobona C, Lanyero H, Byakika-Kibwika P, Bbosa GS, Lubega A, Ogwal-Okeng J, Ryan M, Waako PJ, Merry C (2010). Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130:43-53.
Crossref

 
 

Leteane MM, Ngwenya BN, Muzila M, Namushe A, Mwinga J, Musonda R, Moyo S, Mengestu YB, Abegaz BM, Andrae-Marobela K (2012). Old plants newly discovered: Cassia sieberiana D.C. and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Oliv. root extracts inhibit in vitro HIV-1c replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by different modes of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141:48-56.
Crossref

 
 

Luseba D, Elgorashi EE, Ntloedibe DT, Van Staden J (2007). Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and mutagenic effects of some medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of wounds and retained placenta in livestock. South African Journal of Botany 73:378-383.
Crossref

 
 

Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Zhang J, Walker LA, Muhammad I (2013). Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii. Natural Product Communications 8:761-764.
Crossref

 
 

Magassouba FB, Diallo A, Kouyaté M, Mara F, Mara O, Bangoura O, Camara A, Traoré S, Diallo AK, Zaoro M, Lamah K, Diallo S, Camara G, Traoré S, Kéita A, Camara MK, Barry R, Kéita S, Oularé K, Barry MS, Donzo M, Camara K, Toté K, Berghe DV, Totté J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, Baldé AM (2010). Corrigendum to "Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmocology 114(1): 44-53.
Crossref

 
 

Maikere-Faniyo R, Van Puyvelde L, Mutwewingabo A, Habiyaremye F (1989). Study of Rwandese medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea I. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 26:101-109.
Crossref

 
 

Manenzhe NJ, Potgieter N, van Ree T (2004). Composition and antimicrobial activities of volatile components of Lippia javanica. Phytochemistry 65:2333-2336.
Crossref

 
 

Maregesi S, Van Miert S, Pannecouque C, Feiz HMH, Hermans N, Wright CW, Vlietinck AJ, Apers S, Pieters L (2010). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus. Planta medica 76:195-201.
Crossref

 
 

Maregesi SM, Ngassapa OD, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of the Bunda district, Tanzania: plants used to treat infectious diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113:457-470.
Crossref

 
 

Marlowe F (2002). Why the Hadza are still hunter-gatherers. Ethnicity, huntergatherers, and the 'Other', ed. S. Kent. Association or Assimilation in Africa, Sue Kent (Ed.) Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press pp. 247-275.

 
 

Maroyi A (2014). Alternative Medicines for HIV/AIDS in Resource-Poor Settings: Insight from Traditional Medicines Use in Sub-Saharan Africa. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 13:1527.
Crossref

 

Maroyi A (2017). Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng: Traditional and Commercial Uses and Phytochemical and Pharmacological Significance in the African and Indian Subcontinent. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 34 p.
Crossref

 

Mbunde MV, Innocent E, Mabiki F, Andersson PG (2017). Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6:84-96.
Crossref

 
 

Mbwambo ZH, Moshi MJ, Masimba PJ, Kapingu MC, Nondo RS (2007). Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7(1):9.
Crossref

 
 

Mesfin F, Demissew S, Teklehaymanot T (2009). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5:28.
Crossref

 
 

Mohammed MM, Ibrahim NA, Awad NE, Matloub AA, Mohamed-Ali AG, Barakat EE, Mohamed AE, Colla PL (2012). Anti-HIV-1 and cytotoxicity of the alkaloids of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. growing in Sudan. Natural Product Research 26:1565-1575.
Crossref

 
 

Mongalo NI, McGaw LJ, Segapelo TV, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2016). Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology and pharmacological properties of Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC. (Combretaceae) - A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 194:789-802.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Cosam JC, Mbwambo ZH, Kapingu M, Nkunya MHH (2009). Testing Beyond Ethnomedical Claims: Brine Shrimp Lethality of Some Tanzanian Plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 42:547-551.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Mbwambo ZH (2005). Some pharmacological properties of extracts of Terminalia sericea roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97:43-47.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Mbabazi, PK, Weisheit A (2010). Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6:19.
Crossref

 
 

Moshi MJ, van den Beukel C, Hamza OJ, Mbwambo ZH, Nondo RO, Masimba PJ, Matee M, Kapingu MC, Mikx F, Verweije P (2007). Brine shrimp toxicity evaluation of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4:219-225.
Crossref

 
 

Mossa JS, El-Feraly FS, Muhammad I (2004). Antimycobacterial constituents from Juniperus procera, Ferula communis and Plumbago zeylanica and their in vitro synergistic activity with isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Phytotherapy Research 18:934-937.
Crossref

 
 

Mujovo SF, Hussein AA, Meyer JJ, Fourie B, Muthivhi T, Lall N (2008). Bioactive compounds from Lippia javanica and Hoslundia opposita. Natural Product Research 22:1047-1054.
Crossref

 
 

Mukanganyama S, Ntumy AN, Maher F, Muzila M, Andrae-Marobela K (2011). Screening for anti-infective properties of selected medicinal plants from Botswana. African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 5:1-7.

 
 

Mulaudzi RB, Ndhlala AR, Kulkarni MG, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2011). Antimicrobial properties and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the Venda people for conditions related to venereal diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135:330-337.
Crossref

 
 

Nair JJ, Mulaudzi RB, Chukwujekwu JC, Van Heerden FR, Van Staden J (2013). Antigonococcal activity of Ximenia caffra Sond. (Olacaceae) and identification of the active principle. South African Journal of Botany 86:111-115.
Crossref

 
 

NBS (2013). 2012 Population and Housing Census. National Bureau of Statistics, United Republic of Tanzania.

 
 

NBS (2017). Tanzania HIV impact survey (THIS) 2016-2017; Summary sheet: Preliminary findings.

 
 

Ngezahayo J, Havyarimana F, Hari L, Stevigny C, Duez P (2015). Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 173:338-351.
Crossref

 
 

Ngezahayo J, Ribeiro SO, Fontaine V, Hari L, Stevigny C, Duez P (2017). In vitro Study of Five Herbs Used Against Microbial Infections in Burundi. Phytotherapy Research 31:1571-1578.
Crossref

 
 

Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW (2007). Ethnotherapeautic management of skin diseases among the Kikuyus of Central Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111:303-307.
Crossref

 
 

Nyamukuru A, Tabuti JRS, Lamorde M, Kato B, Sekagya Y, Aduma PR (2017). Medicinal plants and traditional treatment practices used in the management of HIV/AIDS clients in Mpigi District, Uganda. Journal of Herbal Medicine 7:51-58.
Crossref

 
 

Odak JA, Manguro LOA, Wong K-C (2018). New compounds with antimicrobial activities from Elaeodendron buchananii stem bark. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 20:510-524.
Crossref

 
 

Olila D, Opuda-Asibo J (2001). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis, Ugandan medicinal plants. African Health Sciences 1:66-72.

 
 

Olilaa D, Opuda-Asibo J (2002). Screening of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis for activity against measles virus (Swartz and Edmonston strains) in vitro. African Health Sciences 2:2-10.

 
 

Patel S, Mwamhanga J (2014). The Importance of ethno-medicinal plants amongst the Iraqw in the Karatu District: Cultural and conservation implications. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences 13:1.

 
 

Pendota SC, Aderogba MA, Moyo M, McGaw LJ, Mulaudzi RB, Van Staden J (2017). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of Pappea capensis. South African Journal of Botany 108:272-277.
Crossref

 
 

Peter O, Esther M, Gabriel M, Daniel K, Christine B (2015). In vitro anti-Salmonella activity of extracts from selected Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 9:254-261.
Crossref

 
 

Qwarse M, Mihale MJ, Sempombe J, Mugoyela VLH, Sunghwa F (2018). Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal and Pesticidal Plants used by Agro-pastoral Communities in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Science and Technology 1:22-35.

 
 

Radol A, Kiptoo M, Makokha A, Tolo F (2016). Types of Herbal Medicine Used for HIV Conditions in Vihiga County, Kenya. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 13:1-23.
Crossref

 
 

Ramadhani SON, Denis Z, Mainen JM, Paul E, Samuel W, Moses NN, Vincent PKT, Abdul WK, Pax JM (2015). Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Kagera and Lindi regions, Tanzania. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 9:179-192.
Crossref

 
 

Ramathal DC, Ngassapa OD (2008). Medicinal Plants Used by Rwandese Traditional Healers in Refugee Camps in Tanzania. Pharmaceutical Biology 39:132-137.
Crossref

 
 

Rea A (2003). Cytotoxic activity of Ozoroa insignis from Zimbabwe. Fitoterapia 74:732-735.
Crossref

 
 

Ribeiro A, Romeiras MM, Tavares J, Faria MT (2010). Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6:33.
Crossref

 
 

Rondevaldova J, Leuner O, Teka A, Lulekal E, Havlik J, Van Damme P, Kokoska L (2015). In Vitro Antistaphylococcal Effects of Embelia schimperi Extracts and Their Component Embelin with Oxacillin and Tetracycline. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2015, 175983.
Crossref

 
 

Rukunga GM, Kofi-Tsekpo MW, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S, Mungai GM, Muli JM, Tolo FM, Kibaya RM, Muthaura CN, Kanyara JN (2002). Evaluation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory properties of extracts from some medicinal plants in Kenya. African Journal of Health Sciences 9:81-90.
Crossref

 
 

Runyoro DK, Matee MI, Ngassapa OD, Joseph CC, Mbwambo ZH (2006). Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 6:11.
Crossref

 
 

Salih EYA, Fyhrquist P, Abdalla AMA, Abdelgadir AY, Kanninen M, Sipi M, Luukkanen O, Fahmi MKM, Elamin MH, Ali HA (2017). LC-MS/MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Pentacyclic Triterpenes in Antifungal Extracts of Terminalia brownii (Fresen). Antibiotics 6(4):37.
Crossref

 
 

Samie A, Housein A, Lall N, Meyer JJ (2009). Crude extracts of, and purified compounds from, Pterocarpus angolensis, and the essential oil of Lippia javanica: their in-vitro cytotoxicities and activities against selected bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 103:427-439.
Crossref

 
 

Semenya SS, Maroyi A (2012). Medicinal plants used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat diarrhoea in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 144:395-401.
Crossref

 
 

Shai LJ, Chauke MA, Magano SR, Magala AM, Elof JN (2013). Antibacterial activity of sixteen plants species from Phalaborwa, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 7:1889-1906.

 
 

Sigidi MT, Anokwuru CP, Zininga T, Tshisikhawe MP, Shonhai A, Ramaite IDI, Traoré AN, Potgieter N (2016). Comparative in vitro cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbiological activities of two indigenous Venda medicinal plants. Translational Medicine Communications 1(1):9.
Crossref

 
 

Singh M, Kumar V, Singh I, Gauttam V, Kalia AN (2010). Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves. Pharmacognosy Research 2:364-367.
Crossref

 
 

Tantiado RG (2012). Survey on Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Iloilo, Philippines. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology 4(4):11-26.

 
 

Tanzania, N.A.C.P., 2002. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report.

 
 

Tanzania, N.A.C.P., 2011. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report.

 
 

Temam T, Dillo A (2016). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Mirab-Badwacho district, Ethiopia. Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology 5:151-158.

 
 

Tesfaye A, Girma A (2017). Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Nutraceutical Potential of Enset (Ensete ventricosum). African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 9:112-117.

 
 

Thabeet GO, Shija S, Rweyemamu F (2017). Knowledge of plant species used by HIV/AIDS patients in managing opportunistic infections in Tazania. Advanced Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1:007-016.

 
 

Thayil SM, Thyagarajan SP (2016). PA-9: A Flavonoid Extracted from Plectranthus amboinicus Inhibits HIV-1 Protease. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 6:1020-1024.

 
 

Toyang NJ, Verpoorte R (2013). A review of the medicinal potentials of plants of the genus Vernonia (Asteraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 146:681-723.
Crossref

 
 

Tshikalange TE, Meyer JJ, Lall N, Munoz E, Sancho R, Van de Venter M, Oosthuizen V (2008). In vitro anti-HIV-1 properties of ethnobotanically selected South African plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119:478-481.
Crossref

 
 

Tuasha N, Petros B, Asfaw Z (2018). Plants Used as Anticancer Agents in the Ethiopian Traditional Medical Practices: A Systematic Review. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2018, 6274021.
Crossref

 
 

Tugume P, Kakudidi EK, Buyinza M, Namaalwa J, Kamatenesi M, Mucunguzi P, Kalema J (2016). Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12(1):5.
Crossref

 
 

Vivanco JM (1999). Antiviral and Antiviroid Activity of MAP-Containing Extracts from Mirabilis jalapa Roots. Plant Disease, p. 83.
Crossref

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Fact sheet Number. 134: Traditional medicine, Geneva: . World Health Organization, Geneva

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2018). UNAID Data 2018. World Health Organization, Geneva

 
 

Woldeab B, Regassa R, Alemu T, Megersa M (2018). Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM 2018, 4630371.
Crossref

 
 

Wube AA, Bucar F, Gibbons S, Asres K (2005). Sesquiterpenes from Warburgia ugandensis and their antimycobacterial activity. Phytochemistry 66:2309-2315.
Crossref

 
 

Yuvaraj DM (2011). A comprehensive review on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5(25):2738-2747.
Crossref

 
 

Zachariah SM, Aleykutty NA, Viswanad V, Jacob S, Prabhakar V (2011). In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Free Radicals and Antioxidants 1:82-86.
Crossref

 

 




          */?>