Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia plant was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo against Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus terreus, mostly implicated in plant and animal fungal diseases. Antifungal potential of the extract were evaluated quantitatively in vitro using well diffusion method and in vivo by studying the survival rate of Drosophila melanogaster (Harwich) challenged with the test standard isolates and compared with controls. The activities increased with increasing concentration. Maximum antifungal activity was shown against A. fumigatus with the average inhibition of 20 mm each while the least activity were extracts of A. cordifolia against A. terreus concentration of 80 mg/ml with 7mm zones of inhibition. Itraconazole (positive control) at 16.667m/ml, ranged from 15±0.13mm to 20±0.13mm with MIC values from 2.630mg/ml to 6.761 mg/ml. The MIC values of extracts ranged from 50mg/ml to 794mg/ml. The survival behaviours of the infected flies varied. A high survival trend was observed with more than 50 % flies treated with A. cordifolia in the ingestion than rolling assay, but without any significant difference statistically. The extract showed an antifungal potential both in vitro and in vivo against the standard organisms, confirming the traditional medicinal claims for use against pathogenic fungal infections of plant and animals. The results obtained underscore the significance of elucidating the mechanisms of action of secondary metabolites on fly immune response.
Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus terreus, Drosophila melanogaster, antifungal